Christ Assembly

The Key to Prophecy

Part Two

Three Questions of  Matthew 24:1-25:46

Tote, Tauta and Mathete Analytics

Expository Bible Studies

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This article continues from Part One on Matthew 24

Matthew 25:1-31: Mathete Section of the Parable of the Ten Virgins and the Parable of the Talents. Jesus continued His “learn” commands related to the prophecies He provided. In the Parable of the Ten Virgins, Jesus described why His disciples should “watch therefore,” because they did not know the day or the hour. The link between the earlier Mathete Section of Matthew 24:42-51 becomes explicit with the same words and phrases used.

25:1-13 The Parable of the Ten Virgins. Jesus continued His Mathete Section with his previous words “Watch therefore” (“Γρηγορεῖτε οὖν”) because “you do not know the day nor the hour” (“ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν ἡμέραν οὐδὲ τὴν ὥραν”) of His appearing. The disciples of Jesus must watch because they do not know the day and hour He will appear. They must also prepare for the Son of Man to appear beyond the time they expect Him to appear.

25:1a Then. Jesus used the term “then” (“Τότε”), marking consecutive time.

25:1b The Kingdom of Heaven May Be Likened to Ten Virgins, Who Took Their Lamps and Went out To Meet the Bridegroom. Jesus used another illustration of what the kingdom of God will be like in the future. Just as Israel did not recognize the presence of the Kingdom of God when Jesus took flesh and dwelt among them, so also many people will not recognize the signs of the appearing of the Son of Man: “the Kingdom of Heaven may be likened to ten virgins, who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom.” The virgins go looking for the coming bridegroom with their ten lamps.

25:2 Five of Them Were Foolish, and Five Thoughtful. Jesus divided the ten virgins into two even groups, as He did before with the disciples and the evil slaves. Jesus said: “Five of them were foolish, and five thoughtful (“πέντε δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἦσαν μωραὶ καὶ πέντε φρόνιμοι”). The first group of virgins were foolish (“μωραὶ”). The second group of virgins were thoughtful (“φρόνιμοι”) (remember the “thoughtful” disciples above in Matthew 24:45 and the translation there).  

25:3 For When the Foolish Took Their Lamps, They Took No Oil with Them. The five foolish virgins were foolish for taking no oil with them: “For when the foolish took their lamps, they took no oil with them” (“αἱ γὰρ μωραὶ λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔλαβον μεθ’ ἑαυτῶν ἔλαιον.”) The foolish virgins either did not expect the bridegroom to arrive later than they expected, or they did not consider the possibility they may need more oil. In either case, they were unprepared.

25:4 But the Thoughtful Took Oil in Flasks along with Their Lamps. The five thoughtful (“φρόνιμοι”) virgins brought oil along with their lamps. Jesus said: “But the thoughtful took oil in flasks along with their lamps” (“αἱ δὲ φρόνιμοι ἔλαβον ἔλαιον ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἑαυτῶν”). Through careful thought, they anticipated that the bridegroom may not appear immediately and further oil would be required.

25:5 Now While the Bridegroom Was Delaying, They All Were Drowsy and Were Asleep. Jesus taught that being drowsy and asleep caused problems for the five foolish virgins. Jesus said: “Now while the bridegroom was delaying, they all were drowsy and were asleep” (“χρονίζοντος δὲ τοῦ νυμφίου ἐνύσταξαν πᾶσαι καὶ ἐκάθευδον”). Notice the comparison of the term here of “was delaying” (“χρονίζοντος”–present active participle genitive singular) with the term “delayed” (“χρονίζει”) in Matthew 24:48. Not only did the five foolish virgins not bring oil for their lamps, they also became drowsy and slept, instead of watching because they did not know when the bridegroom would appear.

25:6 But at Midnight There Was a Shout, “Behold, the bridegroom! Come out To Meet“. Jesus described the arrival of the bridegroom at midnight with a shout and a call to meet him: “But at midnight there was a shout, ‘Behold, the bridegroom! Come out to meet.’” (“μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς κραυγὴ γέγονεν· ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος, ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν [αὐτοῦ]”). The bridegroom did not delay all night, but only to midnight. Also notice the “shout” (“κραυγὴ”), and compare it to the shout (“κελεύσματι”) of 1 Thessalonians 4:16when the Lord Jesus returns to the clouds.

25:7a Then. Jesus used the term “then” (“Τότε”), marking consecutive time.

25:7b All Those Virgins Rose and Trimmed Their Lamps. Having heard the shout, “then all virgins rose and trimmed their lamps” (“τότε ἠγέρθησαν πᾶσαι αἱ παρθένοι ἐκεῖναι καὶ ἐκόσμησαν τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν”). Apparently, some virgins rose from their sleep while others were ready.

25:8 The Foolish Said to the Thoughtful, “Give Us Some of Your Oil, for Our Lamps Are Going Out. Jesus exposed another problem with the foolish virgins: “The foolish said to the thoughtful, give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out” (“αἱ δὲ μωραὶ ταῖς φρονίμοις εἶπαν· δότε ἡμῖν ἐκ τοῦ ἐλαίου ὑμῶν, ὅτι αἱ λαμπάδες ἡμῶν σβέννυνται”). The foolish were not thoughtful and were unprepared for the coming of the bridegroom. They turned to the thoughtful and wanted oil.

25:9 But the Thoughtful Answered, “No, There Will Not Be Enough for Us and You; Go Instead to the Dealers, and Buy for Yourselves.” Jesus continued with his warning about the foolish while waiting for the bridegroom: “But the thoughtful answered, ‘No, there will not be enough for us and you; go instead to the dealers, and buy for yourselves” (“ἀπεκρίθησαν δὲ αἱ φρόνιμοι λέγουσαι· μήποτε οὐ μὴ ἀρκέσῃ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν· πορεύεσθε μᾶλλον πρὸς τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράσατε ἑαυταῖς”). The thoughtful wanted to ready for the bridegroom and planned ahead. The foolish did not bring extra oil, but then expected the thoughtful virgins to provide for them. Being thoughtful, the other virgins knew they would not have enough oil for both. The greater duty was to be ready for the bridegroom upon his appearance, and so declined the request to borrow oil.

25:10 And While They Were Going away To Make the Purchase, the Bridegroom Came, and Those Who Were Ready Went in with Him to the Wedding Feast; and the Door Was Shut. Jesus made it plain that only the thoughtful virgins entered into the wedding feast: “And while they were going away to make the purchase, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the wedding feast” (“ἀπερχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀγοράσαι ἦλθεν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ αἱ ἕτοιμοι εἰσῆλθον μετ’ αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς γάμους καὶ ἐκλείσθη ἡ θύρα”). Only the thoughtful virgins, ready with lamps lit, entered into the wedding feast with the bridegroom. 

25:11 Later the Other Virgins also Came, Saying, “Lord, Lord, Open up for Us.” Jesus showed that the foolish virgins sought entry into the wedding, although they were late: “Later the other virgins also came, saying, ‘Lord, lord, open up for us” (“ὕστερον δὲ ἔρχονται καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι λέγουσαι· κύριε κύριε, ἄνοιξον ἡμῖν”).  The use of the phrase “Lord, lord” (“κύριε κύριε”) also occurs in Matthew 7:21 when people there also want to enter the kingdom of heaven, but Jesus said to them that only those people doing the will of God the Father will enter the kingdom of heaven. In Matthew 25:11 Jesus emphasized that being foolish means you still seek entry to the wedding feast after the door was shut. The foolish virgins still thought they could simply request entry and they would be admitted. Finally, notice that Jesus used the same term “lord” in Matthew 25:11.  Jesus intended all the Mathete verses to be interpreted together and used them to disclose different aspects of being ready for His appearing.

25:12 But He Answered, ‘Truly I Say to You, I Do Not Know You. The lord answered the foolish virgins: “But he answered, ‘Truly I say to you, I do not know you” (“ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς”).  In John 17:13 Jesus taught that eternal life is to know God the Father, the only true God, and Jesus Christ Whom He has sent. Jesus let everyone know that when the door closes, all the people inside He knows, and those outside He does not know. The foolish virgins and the thoughtful virgins had very different destinies. 

25:13 Watch Therefore, for You Do Not Know the Day nor the Hour. Jesus again used very similar to those words He had used above: “Watch therefore, for you do not know the day nor the hour” (“Γρηγορεῖτε οὖν, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν ἡμέραν οὐδὲ τὴν ὥραν.”).  In Matthew 24:42 Jesus used identical words to command His disciples to watch therefore because they did not know the day of the appearing of the Son of Man.  In Matthew 25:50 Jesus applied those same words to the slaves who did not know the day and hour their lord would return. In this parable of the virgins, the thoughtful virgins describe the disciples; they do not fall asleep, they thoughtfully prepared extra oil, and were ready to greet the bridegroom. They were not only looking the return of the Lord, but they were also thoughtful in getting ready for his return. So also believers today should learn that we must be thoughtful and ready for the return of the lord at any time. We should make provision for His delay in coming. The foolish virgins were not thoughtful, lacked the oil, and had to go and buy some, but by then it was too late. Jesus emphasized the need to be prepared and ready for any delay. When the Lord shuts the door, he says to every foolish virgin that the time for them to enter into the kingdom of heaven has passed and He will close the door, because He never knew them.

♦ Jesus likened the kingdom of heaven to thoughtful people.

♦ Until Jesus appears, He commanded His disciples to watch, because they do not know the hour or day of His appearing.

♦ Until Jesus appears, He commanded His disciples to be thoughtful.

♦ Thoughtful disciples prepare for any delay in Jesus appearing, and have adequate provisions.

♦ When Jesus appears, the thoughtful disciples hear His voice and join him for the wedding feast in the kingdom of heaven.

♦ When Jesus closes the door at the wedding feast, no one else may enter.

♦ Foolish people do not consider the need to be prepared for any delay in the appearing of Jesus.

♦ Foolish people become drowsy and sleep as they wait for the appearing of Jesus.

♦ When Jesus appears, foolish people are not ready, and the disciples can not help them.

♦ When Jesus appears, foolish people are out buying things to get ready for the appearing of Jesus.

♦ When Jesus appears, foolish people find the door to the wedding feast of Jesus closed and they cannot enter.

♦ When Jesus closes the door, foolish people cannot enter to be with Jesus in the kingdom of heaven.

♦ When Jesus closes the door, He tells the foolish to depart, because He never knew them.

♦ Today Jesus urges all of His disciples to watch, for they do not know the day nor the hour of His appearing.

The Parable of the Talents 

25:14 For It Is Just Like a Man Going Away on a Journey, Who Called His Own Slaves and Entrusted His Possessions to Them. Jesus began a new parable. He wanted them to learn a new lesson related to His appearing. This parable fits in with the other “learn” commands. Jesus said: “For it is just like a man about to go on a journey, who called his own slaves and entrusted his possessions to them” (“Ὥσπερ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος ἀποδημῶν ἐκάλεσεν τοὺς ἰδίους δούλους καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτοῖς τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτοῦ”). 

25:15 To One He Gave Five Talents, to Another, Two, and to Another, One, each according to His Own Ability; and He Went on His Journey. Jesus described how the man divided his possessions among his slaves: “to one he gave five talents, to another, two, and to another, one, each according to his own ability; and he went on his journey” (“καὶ ᾧ μὲν ἔδωκεν πέντε τάλαντα, ᾧ δὲ δύο, ᾧ δὲ ἕν, ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν ἰδίαν δύναμιν, καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν.”) Notice that the man knew each slave’s ability, and gave talents according to the individual slave’s ability.

25:16 Immediately the One Who Had Received the Five Talents Went and Traded with Them, and Gained Five More Talents. Jesus disclosed how each slave did with the talents: “Immediately the one who had received the five talents went and traded with them, and gained five more talents” (“εὐθέωςπορευθεὶς ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν ἠργάσατο ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐκέρδησεν ἄλλα πέντε”). As expected, the most able slave immediately gained five more talents.

25:17 In the Same Manner the Two One  Gained Two More. Jesus also related the gain of the second slave: “In the same manner the two one gained two more” (“ὡσαύτως ὁ τὰ δύο ἐκέρδησεν ἄλλα δύο”). As expected, the slave with two talents, in the same manner as the five talent slave, gained two more talents.

25:18 But He Who Received the One Went Away, and Dug in the Ground and Hid His Lord’s Money. Jesus then explained what the one talent slave did: “But he who received the one went away and dug in the ground and hid his lord’s money” (“ὁ δὲ τὸ ἓν λαβὼν ἀπελθὼν ὤρυξεν γῆν καὶ ἔκρυψεν τὸ ἀργύριον τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ”). Notice that this slave received the least, because of least ability, and gained nothing. He could have gained in the same manner as the previous two slaves, but instead he buried the talents.

25:19 Now after a Long Time the Lord of Those Slaves Came and Settled Accounts with Them. Jesus turned to the day of accounting when the lord of those slaves returned from his journey: “Now after a long time the lord of those slaves came and settled accounts with them” (“Μετὰ δὲ πολὺν χρόνον ἔρχεται ὁ κύριος τῶν δούλων ἐκείνων καὶ συναίρει λόγον μετ’ αὐτῶν”). 

25:20 The One Who Had Received the Five Talents Came Up and Brought Five More Talents, Saying, Lord, You Entrusted Five Talents to Me. See I Have Gained Five More Talents. The slave with five talents brought five more to his lord. Jesus said: “The one who had received five talents came up and brought five more talents, saying, ‘Lord, you entrusted five talents to me. See, I have gained five more talents’” (“καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν προσήνεγκεν ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα λέγων· κύριε, πέντε τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας”).

25:21 His Lord Said to Him, ‘Well Done, Good and Faithful Slave. You Were Faithful with a Few Things, I Will Put You in Charge of Many Things; Enter into the Joy of your Lord. The lord then praised the five talent slave: “The lord said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful slave. You were faithful wit a few things, I will put you in charge of many things; enter into the joy of your lord’” (“ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ· εὖ, δοῦλε ἀγαθὲ καὶ πιστέ, ἐπὶ ὀλίγα ἦς πιστός, ἐπὶ πολλῶν σε καταστήσω· εἴσελθε εἰς τὴν χαρὰν τοῦ κυρίου σου”). Jesus described the five talent slave as good (“ἀγαθὲ”) and (“πιστέ”). Notice that the lord commanded the good and faithful slave: “enter into” (“εἰσῆλθον”)  the joy of your lord, just as the ten virgins were commanded “enter into” (“εἰσῆλθον”) the wedding feast. In both cases, part of the reward for faithful service is being with the Lord when he appears.

25:22 Also the Two Talents One Came Up and Said, “Lord, You Entrusted Two Talents to Me. See, I Have Gained Two More Talents.’ Likewise, the slave entrusted with two talents reported: “Also the two talent one came up and said, ‘Lord, you entrusted two talents to me. See, I have gained two more talents” (“Προσελθὼν [δὲ] καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα εἶπεν· κύριε, δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας· ἴδε ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα”). Like the five talent slave, the two talent slave doubled the amount entrusted to him.

25:23 His Lord Said to Him, ‘Well Done, Good and Faithful Slave. You Were Faithful with a Few Things, I Will Put You in Charge of Many Things; Enter into the Joy of Your Lord. Using identical language, the lord put him in charge of many things and promised him that he would enter into the joy of his lord.

25:24 And the One Also Who Had Received the One Talent Came Up and Said, ‘Lord, I Knew You To be a Hard Man, Reaping Where You Did Not Sow and Gathering Where Scattered Not. Finally, the one talent slave appeared and reported: “And the one also who had received the one talent came up and said, ‘Lord, I knew you to be a hard man, reaping where you did not sow and gathering where you scattered not” (“Προσελθὼν δὲ καὶ ὁ τὸ ἓν τάλαντον εἰληφὼς εἶπεν· κύριε, ἔγνων σε ὅτι σκληρὸς εἶ ἄνθρωπος, θερίζων ὅπου οὐκ ἔσπειρας καὶ συνάγων ὅθεν οὐ διεσκόρπισας”). As this one talent slave reports, he has already incriminated himself, as we will see when his lord judges him.

25:25 And I Was Afraid, and Went Away and Hid Your Talent in the Ground. See, You Have What Is Yours. The one talent slave reports that he gained nothing and did  not even try to gain: “And I was afraid, and went away and hid your talent in the ground. See, you have what is yours” (“καὶ φοβηθεὶς ἀπελθὼν ἔκρυψα τὸ τάλαντόν σου ἐν τῇ γῇ· ἴδε ἔχεις τὸ σόν”). The one talent slave deliberately made no gain, even knowing all about his lord’s standards for investing. Fear of his master did not lead the one talent slave in right direction, but to willful disobedience.

25:26 But His Lord Answered and Said to Him, ‘You Wicked, Lazy Slave, You Knew that I Reap Where I Did Not Sow and Gather Where I Scattered Not. The words of the slave’s lord form the perfect indictment, using the words of the one talent slave as the basis for judgment: “But His lord answered and said to him, ‘You wicked, lazy slave. You knew the I reap where I did not sow and gather where I scattered not’”).

25:27 Then You Ought To Have Put My Money in the Bank, and on My Arrival I Would Have Received Mine back with Interest. The lord continued: “Then you ought to have put my money in the bank, and on my arrival, I would have received mine back with interest” (“ἔδει σε οὖν βαλεῖν τὰ ἀργύριά μου τοῖς τραπεζίταις, καὶ ἐλθὼν ἐγὼ ἐκομισάμην ἂν τὸ ἐμὸν σὺν τόκῳ”). The evil slave did not seek interest, but buried the money. 

25:28 Therefore Take away  the Talent from Him, and Give It to the One Who Has the Ten Talents. The lord then directed that the money entrusted to the evil slave be taken away and given to the ten talent slave: “Therefore take away the talent from him, and give it to the One who has the ten talents” (“ἄρατε οὖν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ τὸ τάλαντον καὶ δότε τῷ ἔχοντι τὰ δέκα τάλαντα”). The evil slave lost what was given to him, because he deliberately disobeyed his lord.

25:29 For to Everyone Who Has, Shall Be Given, and He Will Have an Abundance; But from the One Who Does Not Have, Even What He Does Have Shall Be Taken Away. Jesus then explained  binding principles of wealth “For the one who has all shall be given and he will have an abundance, but the one not having also that which he has shall be taken from him”  (“Τῷ γὰρ ἔχοντι παντὶ δοθήσεται καὶ περισσευθήσεται, τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ”). 

25:30 Throw out the Worthless Slave into the Outer Darkness; in that Place There Will Be Weeping and Gnashing of Teeth. Jesus then commanded the worthless slave thrown out: “Throw out the worthless slave into the outer darkness; there is the weeping and the gnashing of the teeth” (“καὶ τὸν ἀχρεῖον δοῦλον ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων”). 

♦ The lord leaves on a journey.

♦ Before leaving, the lord entrusted various slaves with various amounts of money.

♦ The ten-talent slave received ten talents, the five-talent slave received five talents, and the one-talent slave receive one talent.

♦ The lord distributed his money according to the ability of each slave.

♦ Some slaves were faithful to the lord and his investing principles.

♦ The faithful slaves doubled the money of the master.

♦ Some slaves had fear and buried the money.

♦ The one-talent slave buried the lord’s money and deliberately disobeyed the lord who reaped where he did not sow and gathered where he did not scatter.

♦ When the lord returns, each slave will appear before his lord and give account of this stewardship of the lord’s money.

♦ The lord praised the slaves who doubled the lord’s money.

♦ The lord called the slaves who invested good and faithful slaves.

♦ The good and faithful slaves enter into the joy of the lord.

♦ The one-talent slave who buried the money appeared before the lord upon his return. 

♦ The one-talent slave buried the money because he feared his lord, knowing he is a hard man, reaping where he did not sow, and gathering where he did not scatter.

♦ The lord called the one talent slave who buried the money worthless and wicked.

♦ The lord judged the one talent slave according to what he knew about his lord: he reaped where he did not sow, and gathered where he did not scatter. Applying those principles of investing, the slave should have deposited the lord’s money in the bank and returned the lord’s money to him with interest.

♦ The lord took away the one talent give to the worthless slave and gave it to the ten-talent slave.

♦ Having judged the worthless slave, the lord commanded that one talent slave to be taken away, and to cast him into the outer darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Section Three

Matthew 25:31-46

Question Three:

What Will Be  the Sign of the

End of the Age?

25:31a But When. Jesus moved to the third question of the disciples regarding the sign of the end of the age. He signaled the change with the words “But when” (“Οταν δὲ”).  In this context, those words indicate another consecutive movement in time. The third question of the disciples concerned “the consummation of the age” (“συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”). What time period is in view with the phrase “end of the age”? This phrase “consummation of the age” means that some particular period of time with particular events comes to a conclusion or consummation. Please see Appendix One for a discussion of the term “age” in the New Testament. In Matthew 24-25, “the consummation of the age” refers to the end of a definite period of time (not the end of the world).The end of the “age” refers to the time when Jesus returns at the end of the Tribulation and begins the new age of His Millennial Reign on earth.   This phrase “the consummation of the age” (“συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”) appears in Matthew 13:39–the harvest occurs at the end of the age (“ὁ δὲ θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν”); Matthew 13:40–the tares “are gathered up and burned with fire, so shall it be at the consummation of the age” (ὥσπερ οὖν συλλέγεται τὰ ζιζάνια καὶ πυρὶ [κατα]καίεται, οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος”); Matthew 13:49–“at the consummation of the age, the angels will come forth and take the wicked from among the righteous” (“οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος· ἐξελεύσονται οἱ ἄγγελοι καὶ ἀφοριοῦσιν τοὺς πονηροὺς ἐκ μέσου τῶν δικαίων”); and Matthew 28:20–Jesus promised to be with His disciples until the consummation of the age (“καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”). The link between Matthew 24:3 and the parable of the wheat and tares in Matthew 13 seems explicit based upon the phrase “the consummation of the age” (“συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”), which occurs three times in Matthew 13 describing the harvest and the time of burning the tares, where the angels take the wicked from among the righteous at “the consummation of the age.” We can pinpoint this time on the timeline of prophecy because Matthew 24 -25 presents a precise chronology of events. Furthermore, Hebrews 9:26 presents clear timing on the ages: if Christ were like the Levitical priests, he would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself (“ἐπεὶ ἔδει αὐτὸν πολλάκις παθεῖν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου· νυνὶ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς ἀθέτησιν [τῆς] ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ πεφανέρωται”). Therefore, we know that before Jesus died on the cross, there were ages beginning with the foundation of the earth and ending with the crucifixion of Jesus. When combined with Matthew 13 and Matthew 24-25, we know that new age began at the crucifixion and ends with the return of Jesus to reign upon the earth.

25:31b Comes the Son of Man in His Glory. Jesus said  the Son of Man in His glory (“ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ”) comes (Matthew 10:16–Son of Man Comes; Matthew 21:40–Owner of Vineyard Comes; Matthew 23:25–Blood of the Prophets Comes). The title Son of Man refers to Jesus (Daniel 7:13Matthew 19:16–Jesus frequently applied this title to Himself in the Gospels). Jesus also revealed to the men on the Emmaus Road that the Christ must suffer these things and to enter into His glory” (Luke 24:26Zechariah 14:39). Based upon the order of events in Matthew 24, the “end of the age” occurs after the sign of the Son of Man appears in the sky, and after the tribes of the earth will mourn, and after Jesus sends forth His angels with a great trumpet and to gather His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other (Matthew 24:30-31). The parable of the tares and wheat provides explicit detail here. In Matthew 13:40, we know that first the wicked (“tares”) are pulled up from the earth when the angels gather them out of the field, which is the world. Then the sons of the kingdom (“wheat”) are left in the world to enjoy the reign of the Son of Man (Jesus) in the Millennial Kingdom. The righteous left upon the earth shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father (Matthew 13:40). Therefore, the end of the age refers to the inauguration of  the Millennial Reign of Christ when He sets up kingdom on earth, when the righteous upon the earth shine forth. The wicked have been removed by the angels taking them away from the earth. This timing will unfold in the next few verses.

25:31c And His Angels with Him.  Jesus comes, “and all His angels come with Him (“καὶ πάντες οἱ ἄγγελοι μετ’ αὐτοῦ). You may recall that Jesus said He had more than twelve legions of angles at His disposal (Matthew 26:53), plus we see myriads of angels in heaven (Psalm 68:17Daniel 7:10Hebrews 12:22Revelation 5:11), and armies in heaven (Revelation 19:14).

25:31d Then. Jesus used the term “then” (“Τότε”), marking consecutive time. In this case, the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, and then He sits on His glorious throne.

25:31e He Will Sit on His Glorious Throne. Only after He appears in glory and comes to earth with all His angels, then “He will sit on on His glorious throne (“καθίσει ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦ”) (Matthew 19:28–time of regeneration of the saints and they twelve disciples of Jesus will judge the twelve tribes of Israel). Sitting on His throne signals the beginning of the reign of Messiah’s Millennial Reign (Revelation 11:5;20:6). At that time, the nations were enraged, the wrath of Jesus came forth, and the time of judgment and reward for the saints, and destruction of those who destroy the earth (Revelation 11:17) . Likewise the saints will reign with Him (Revelation 5:10). 

25:32a All the Nations Will Be Gathered before Him. Jesus will sit on His glorious throne “and all the nations will be gathered before Him” (“καὶ συναχθήσονται ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη”) (Zechariah 14:9). The gathering of the nations signals judgment upon them for opposing Him and failing to believe the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Their armies have already been slaughtered in a series of battles culminating in the final battle of the campaign of Armageddon (Joel 3:212Zechariah 12:11). The angels gather the tares from the four corners of the earth and bring them to judgment before Jesus on His glorious throne (Matthew 13:3041-42); after judgment, they will be thrown in into the furnace of fire, a place of weeping and gnashing of teeth, as they wait more than a thousand years to appear before the Great White Throne Judgment for final judgment and sentencing based on their works to the Lake of Fire (Revelation 20:11-15). Questions arise about whether Matthew 24:30-31, describing angels gathering the righteous from the four corners of the earth, means that Matthew 24:40-41 (describing people taken away from earth) refers to the snatching away of  the righteous at the Clouds Resurrection of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 or to the Appearing of Jesus to begin His Millennial Reign on earth or some other time. Actually, Matthew 24:40-41refers to the wicked, not the righteous, being removed from the earth. The proof comes in both (1) the immediate context and also (2) the link back to Matthew 13. First, in Matthew 24:32-41, Jesus described the fig tree indicating that you can know when Christ is near, and then He focused upon the days of Noah, dealing with judgment upon the wicked. Matthew 24:36-41 describes the taking away of wicked by flooding in Noah’s day. The wicked were living normal lives and suddenly, and unexpectedly, taken away to judgment. The wicked were removed from the earth, and the righteous (Noah and the people on the ark) were left alone on the earth. Therefore, the verses immediately before Matthew 24:40-41 refer to taking away to judgment in the days of Noah and so prove that the taking away in Matthew 24:40-41 refers to the taking away of the wicked, not the taking away of the righteous. Second, the exact phrase for the “end of the age” refers to the parable of Matthew 13, the parable of the wheat and the tares. In the parable of the wheat and the tares, the angels will gather out (“συλλέξατε”) the tares from the world and bundle them for burning. In contrast, Jesus also directed the angels to gather  (“συναγάγετε”) the wheat into His barn (Matthew 13:30). So, after the wicked (tares) have been removed from the kingdom of God on earth, the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father (Matthew 13:41). So, gathering the wheat into the barn means that all believers are gathered into the barn, which is the kingdom of the Father on earth (Matthew 13:43). This gathering of the elect is not to remove them from the earth, but to unite all believers on earth with the Jesus in Jerusalem as He begins His Millennial Reign. This timing of events corresponds with the gathering of the nations before Jesus as He sits on His Millennial throne in Jerusalem (Matthew 25:31-46).

25:32b And He Will Separate Them from One Another, as the Shepherd Separates the Sheep from the Goats. Jesus will sit upon His throne, gather the nations for judgment, “and He will separate them from one another, as the Shepherd separates the sheep from the goats” (“καὶ ἀφορίσει αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ ἀλλήλων, ὥσπερ ὁ ποιμὴν ἀφορίζει τὰ πρόβατα ἀπὸ τῶν ἐρίφων”) (Ezekiel 34:11-30). Some saints may be found among the nations of the earth, but they will remain on earth to enjoy the Millennial Reign of Christ.

25:33 And He Will Put the Sheep on His Right, and the Goats on the Left. Jesus separates the sheep and the goats and puts them on His left and right: “and He will put the sheep on His right, and the goats on the left” (“καὶ στήσει τὰ μὲν πρόβατα ἐκ δεξιῶν αὐτοῦ, τὰ δὲ ἐρίφια ἐξ εὐωνύμων”). Some people may argue that the order of gathering in Matthew 13 conflicts with Matthew 24. In order to resolve any appearance of conflict, we need to look more closely at Matthew 13:41, where Jesus will send forth his angels and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling bocks, and those wo commit lawlessness and will throw them into the furnace of fire (Matthew 13:41). “Then” (“τότε”) the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father (Matthew 13:43). Please keep in mind that “then” (“τότε”) means consecutive order in Matthew 13:41-43.  The gathering first of the wicked seems to conflict with Matthew 24:31 where the saints are gathered from the four winds. Actually, Matthew 24:30-31 specifically fixes that time as when the Son of Man is coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory. Matthew then used the term “and” “(“καὶ”) at the beginning Matthew 24:31, indicating contemporaneous time as when He comes in the clouds. Therefore, when Jesus comes in the cloud, His angels will gather the elect. So, no conflict in the time of the gathering occurs, because only the gathering of the elect into the barn is in view in Matthew 24:31. Jesus then moves in Matthew 24:32-41 to a Mathete (Learn) section, describing the gathering of the tares out of the world. Jesus paused the timeline to give His warning and encouragement to be ready for His appearance.  Jesus then continued with reasons to be ready for His coming in the parables of the ten virgins and the talents. Having concluded those Mathete sections, He addressed the third question of Matthew 24:3 and Matthew 25:32.  So, as Jesus paused in the Mathete section ofMatthew 24:32-41, discussing the need to be ready for His appearing, we read about the tares (wicked) being taken out of the world. Therefore, Matthew 24:40-41 refers to the wicked being taken away to judgment. Therefore, “the end of the age” occurs with Jesus sitting on His Millennial Throne, the time when the wicked are separated from the righteous and sent to the furnace of fire, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. Some may suggest that this time refers to the Great White Throne Judgment ofRevelation 20:11-15, where the wicked are sentenced for their wicked works and thrown into the Lake of Fire. The Great White Throne judgment happens after the Millennial Reign of Christ and after the Final Rebellion of Revelation 20:1-10. Therefore, the place of weeping and gnashing of teeth does not describe the Lake of Fire, because people only go to the Lake of Fire after the Great White Throne Judgment ofRevelation 20:11-15. The Judgment of Separation in view in the Matthew 25:31-46 occurs immediately when the Son of Man comes in His glory and inaugurates His Millennial Reign upon the earth. Therefore, because they are summarily gathered and delivered to eternal punishment at the beginning of the Millennial Reign of Christ, it cannot be the Great White Throne judgment which takes place more than a thousand years later. The placed of weeping and gnashing of teeth described in the parable of the wheat and the tares is Hades where the wicked await the final judgment, assessing individual amounts of punishment at the Great White Throne Judgment. Please note that the wording of Luke 12:46-48. In Luke 12:46, the wicked slave will be “assigned a place with the unbelievers” (“καὶ τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀπίστων θήσει”). In Luke 12:47, the wicked slave who knew his Master’s will and did  do it will receive many lashes. Notice that this action may be sometime later, after the wicked slave is assigned to a place with unbelievers, indicating that indeed the wicked slave goes to Hades, which burns with eternal fire, just as the Lake of Fire (see Afterlife for a discussion of Hades, weeping and gnashing of teeth). In Hades, unbelievers await final judgment at the Great White Throne Judgment and then casting into the Lake of Fire.

25:34a Then the King Will Say to Those on His Right. The King will then speak to the sheep on His right (“Τότε ἐρεῖ ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῖς ἐκ δεξιῶν αὐτοῦ”). The King here knows His sheep and keeps His sheep, just as the Good Shepherd of John 10

25:34b Come. Jesus then speaks to the sheep on His right: “Come” (“δεῦτε”). The word “come” means to come here, and refers to coming to a place. Please recall that the sheep have already been gathered to Jesus from the four corners of the earth (Matthew 24:31). 

25:34c The Ones Blessed of My Father. Jesus referred to the sheep as “the ones blessed of My Father” (“οἱ εὐλογημένοι τοῦ πατρός μου”). The sheep have blessed of the Father, for they know Jesus as Savior (Matthew 16:17).

25:34d Inherit the Kingdom. Jesus commanded the sheep: “inherit the kingdom” (“κληρονομήσατε”–only occurrence of this exact word in the New Testament). We will see that this kingdom is both the kingdom of the Son of Man and the Kingdom of their Father.

25:34e Prepared for You from the Foundation of the World. Jesus described the kingdom as: “prepared for you from the foundation of the world” (“τὴν ἡτοιμασμένην ὑμῖν βασιλείαν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου”). Notice that the term “prepared” (“ἡτοιμασμένην”) occurs in the passive voice, without identification of the preparer. The phrase foundation of the world (“ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου”) described a time when (a) the blood of the prophets began to be spilled (Luke 11:50); God finished His works (Hebrews 4:3); (b) Christ would have to begin His sufferings if He were only a Levitical priests (Hebrews 9:26); and  (c) the names of people who worship the beast and his image were not written in the book of life of the Lamb Who has been slain (Revelation 13:8) (see Books of Life) (see also Revelation 17:8).  Therefore, we see the majestic plans of God included the preparation of this kingdom for the saints from the foundation of the world.

25:35 For I Was Hungry, and You Gave Me To Eat; I Was Thirsty, and You Gave Me To Drink; I Was a Stranger, and You Invited Me In. Jesus then explained why the sheep inherit the kingdom: “For I was hungry, and you gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in” (“ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν, ἐδίψησα καὶ ἐποτίσατέ με, ξένος ἤμην καὶ συνηγάγετέ με).He focused upon their works, because they were created in Christ Jesus for good works (Ephesians 2:10), but not saved by works. Their good works for Jesus demonstrated their salvation by faith alone (James 2:14-26Ephesians 2:8-9Titus 3:5). 

25:36 Naked, and You Clothed Me; I Was Sick, and You Visited Me; I Was in Prison, and You Came to Me. Jesus continued: “naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me” (“γυμνὸς καὶ περιεβάλετέ με, ἠσθένησα καὶ ἐπεσκέψασθέ με, ἐν φυλακῇ ἤμην καὶ ἤλθατε πρός με”). 

25:37a Then. Then” (“τότε”) means consecutive order here. So, the righteous ask a question.

25:37b The Righteous Will Answer Him, ‘Lord, When Did We See You Hungry, and Feed You, or Thirsty, and Give You To Drink? The righteous now have a conversation with Jesus, asking a question: “Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You to drink?’” (“ἀποκριθήσονται αὐτῷ οἱ δίκαιοι λέγοντες· κύριε, πότε σε εἴδομεν πεινῶντα καὶ ἐθρέψαμεν, ἢ διψῶντα καὶ ἐποτίσαμεν”). Please take notice that the righteous were unaware of the good works they performed for Jesus.

25:38 And When Did We See You a Stranger, and Invite You in, or Naked, and Clothe You? The righteous continue their questions: “And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You?” (“πότε δέ σε εἴδομεν ξένον καὶ συνηγάγομεν, ἢ γυμνὸν καὶ περιεβάλομεν”).

25:39 When Did We See You Sick, or in Prison, and Come to You?  The righteous finish their questions: “When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?” (“πότε δέ σε εἴδομεν ἀσθενοῦντα ἢ ἐν φυλακῇ καὶ ἤλθομεν πρός σε”). In all these questions, the righteous do not understand the spiritual significance of their acts to people in need.

25:40a  And. This conjunction “And” (“καὶ”) here indicates simultaneous action.

25:40b The King Will Answer and Say to Them, ‘Truly I Say to You, to the Extent that You Did It to One of These Brothers of Mine, the Least, You Did It to Me.’ The King will answer and say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, the least, you did it to Me’ (“ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐρεῖ αὐτοῖς· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐφ’ ὅσον ἐποιήσατε ἑνὶ τούτων τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου τῶν ἐλαχίστων, ἐμοὶ ἐποιήσατε”). Notice that King Jesus speaks here. He inaugurates His Millennial Reign by bringing the righteous alive on earth into His kingdom. 

25:41a Then. Then” (“τότε”) means consecutive order here.

25:41b He Will Also Say to Those on His Left, ‘Depart from Me.’ King Jesus then will issue a command to the wicked (goats) on His left: “He will also say to those on His left, ‘Depart from Me’ (“ἐρεῖ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ εὐωνύμων πορεύεσθε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ”). The goats are on His left and correspond to the tares taken out of the world at the harvest at the consummation of the age. Then King Jesus will command them to depart from Him. This Greek phrase for “depart from Me (“πορεύεσθε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ”–) only occurs here in the New Testament (see also Matthew 7:23, depart from Me (“ἀποχωρεῖτε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ οἱ ἐργαζόμενοι τὴν ἀνομίαν”–see also usage with unclean spirit in Luke 9:39). 

25:41c Accursed Ones. Jesus called the wicked “accursed ones” (“κατηραμένοι”–used only here in the New Testament). In Galatians 3:10, Paul used a related term “cursed” (“ἐπικατάρατος”) to describe everyone who does not abide by all the things written in the book of the law, to do them (quoting Deuteronomy 27:26–אָרוּר֙ לֹקֵ֣חַ שֹׁ֔חַד לְהַכֹּ֥ות נֶ֖פֶשׁ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֑י).

25:41d Into the Fire of the Ages. The immediate destination of those accursed by God is the fire of the ages: “into the age fire” (“εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ αἰώνιον”).  Jesus warned people to cut off body parts to avoid stumbling and being cast into the age fire (Matthew 18:8). See also Jude 1:7, where wicked cities are exhibited as present examples of suffering the punishment of age (notice the singular “age”) fire. The plural of “ages” in Matthew suggests a time of punishment spanning more than one age, while the singular in Jude 1:7 emphasizes they suffer during this age in Hades (with more suffering to come after the Great White Throne judgment). The “age fire” describes not a place, but rather the flames that await the wicked for the ages. That fire burns in both Hades and the Lake of Fire (see Afterlife). 

25:41e Which Has Been Prepared for the devil and his angels.  Just as the kingdom has been prepared for the saints, so also God prepared the age fire for the devil and his angels: “which has been prepared for the devil and his angels” (“τὸ ἡτοιμασμένον τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ”). 

25:42 For I Was Hungry, and You Not Gave Me To Eat; I Was Thirsty, and You Gave Me Nothing To Drink. King Jesus continued speaking to the wicked (goats) on His left: “for I was hungry, and not you gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and not you gave me a drink” (“ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ οὐκ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν, ἐδίψησα καὶ οὐκ ἐποτίσατέ με”).   

25:43 I Was a Stranger, and You Did Not Invite Me in; Naked, and You Did Not Clothe Me; Sick, and in Prison, and You Did Not Visit Me. King Jesus continued speaking to the wicked (goats) on His left: “I was a stranger, and you did not invite Me in; naked, and you did not clothe Me; sick, and in prison, and you did not visit Me” (“ξένος ἤμην καὶ οὐ συνηγάγετέ με, γυμνὸς καὶ οὐ περιεβάλετέ με, ἀσθενὴς καὶ ἐν φυλακῇ καὶ οὐκ ἐπεσκέψασθέ με”). 

25:44a Then. Then” (“τότε”) means consecutive order here.

25:44b They Themselves Also Will Answer, ‘Lord, When Did We See You Hungry, or Thirsty, or a Stranger, or Naked, or Sick, or in Prison, and Did Not Take Care of You? The wicked (goats) now answer King Jesus: “Then they themselves also will answer, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not take care of You?” (“τότε ἀποκριθήσονται καὶ αὐτοὶ λέγοντες· κύριε, πότε σε εἴδομεν πεινῶντα ἢ διψῶντα ἢ ξένον ἢ γυμνὸν ἢ ἀσθενῆ ἢ ἐν φυλακῇ καὶ οὐ διηκονήσαμέν σοι”). Notice they too did not understand the spiritual significance of what they had done on earth.

25:45a Then. Then” (“τότε”) means consecutive order here.

25:45b He will answer them, ‘Truly I Say to You, to the Extent That You Did Not Do It to One of the Least of These, You Did Not Do It To Me.’ (“ἀποκριθήσεται αὐτοῖς λέγων· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐφ’ ὅσον οὐκ ἐποιήσατε ἑνὶ τούτων τῶν ἐλαχίστων, οὐδὲ ἐμοὶ ἐποιήσατε”). Jesus explained that not doing good to the least of people means you did not do it for Jesus.

25:46a And These Will Go away into Age Punishment. King Jesus then revealed that the wicked will go away to age punishment: “These will go away into age punishment” (“καὶ ἀπελεύσονται οὗτοι εἰς κόλασιν αἰώνιον”). By using the term “age punishment,” Jesus emphasized the duration and quality of punishment for the wicked as they suffer in the furnace of fire in Hades, where the await final judgment at the Great White Throne. Hades is not the final place of punishment for the wicked, but for only an age. We know from other passages that the wicked suffer eternal torment in the Lake of Fire, because the smoke of their torment rises to the age of the ages (Revelation 14:1120:10). 

25:46b But the righteous into Age Life.  King Jesus likewise revealed that the righteous go to age life in the kingdom of God. Please keep in mind that these were already believers saved by grace. These righteous live during the Millennial Reign of Christ, a new age that began with Him appearing and taking His throne on earth.  We know from other passages that believers have eternal life, because they shine forth in the New Jerusalem and reign to the age of the ages (eternity) (Revelation 22:5).

 

Conclusion

 

The disciples asked Jesus three related questions about the future. Jesus answered their questions in chronological order, and linked the events with HIs commands about how His disciples of all ages must be ready for the unfolding events. Those events often include great judgment upon the earth, but they also reveal the unfolding plans of God to reveal His glory and righteousness. Jesus will appear and then take His seat on the Millennial Throne, separating the people gathered from all the nations before Him. To those who believed in Him, they shine forth in the kingdom, while He will command the unbelievers to depart from Him, and be cast into a place of weeping and gnashing of teeth. Jesus wants everyone to be ready for His appearing, because He will come suddenly, when no one expects Him. Praise God for His glorious plans consummated into the age.

 

Appendix One

Chart of καὶ τότε Usage In the Gospel of Matthew

Chronological Keys

 

I have created a chart of the usage of the phrase καὶ τότε to help me understand the usage in the New Testament. I have included  very stilted translations intended only to track the word order, at times. I also like to practice some degree of verbal correspondence. 

VERSETEXTTRANSLATIONTIMEPOINT
Matthew 5:24καὶ τότε ἐλθὼνand then come offer your giftRelated Subsequent Action
Reconciled then Gift
First action followed by second related action
Matthew 7:5καὶ τότε διαβλέψειςand then you will seeRelated Subsequent Action
Log Removed Then Sight
First action followed by second related action
Matthew 7:23 καὶ τότε ὁμολογήσωand then I will confess I never knew themRelated Subsequent Action
Works then Confession
First action followed by subsequent related action
Matthew 12:29καὶ τότε τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ διαρπάσει and then will plunder his houseRelated Subsequent Action
Bind then Plunder
First action followed by subsequent related action
Matthew 16:27καὶ τότε ἀποδώσειand then He will repayRelated Subsequent Action
Jesus Comes then Repays
First action followed by subsequent related action
Matthew 24:10καὶ τότε σκανδαλισθήσονται πολλοὶand then many will be scandalizedRelated Subsequent Action
Delivered to Tribulation, Then Many Fall Away
First action followed by subsequent related action
Matthew 24:14καὶ τότε ἥξει τὸ τέλος and then will come the endRelated Subsequent Action
Gospel Preached then Comes the End
First action followed by subsequent related action
Matthew 24:30καὶ τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷand then will appear the sign of the Son of Man in heavenRelated Subsequent Event
After Tribulation, Sign of Son of Man Will Appear
First action followed by subsequent related action

 

Appendix Two

Chart of τότε Usage In the Gospel of Matthew

Chronological Keys

 

I have created a chart of the usage of τότε and to help me understand the usage in the New Testament. I have included very stilted translations intended only to track the word order, at times. I also like to practice some degree of verbal correspondence.

VERSETEXTTRANSLATIONTIMEPOINT
Matthew 2:7
Τότε Ἡρῴδης λάθρᾳ καλέσαςThen Herod secretly calledSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 2:16Τότε Ἡρῴδης ἰδὼνThen when Herod sawSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 2:17τότε ἐπληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲν Then what had been spokenSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 3:5τότε ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸνThen was going out to himSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 3:13Τότε παραγίνεται ὁ ἸησοῦςThen Jesus arrivedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 3:15τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτόνThen he permitted HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 4:1Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀνήχθηThen Jesus was led upSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 4:5Τότε παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολοςThen the devil took HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 4:10τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ ἸησοῦςThen Jesus said to himSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 4:11τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολοςThen the devil left Him Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 4:17Ἀπὸ τότε ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς κηρύσσεινFrom then began the Jesus to preachSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event forward
Matthew 8:26τότε ἐγερθεὶςThen He got upSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 9:6τότε λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷThen He said to the paralyticSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 9:14 Tότε προσέρχονται αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ ἸωάννουThen came to Him the disciples of JohnSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 9:15καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσινand then they will fastSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 9:29 τότε ἥψατο τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶνThen He touched their eyesSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 9:37 τότε λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦThen He said to His disciplesSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 11:20Τότε ἤρξατο ὀνειδίζειν τὰς πόλειςThen He began to denounce the citiesSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 12:13τότε λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳThen He said to the manSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 12:22Τότε προσηνέχθη αὐτῷ δαιμονιζόμενοςThen was brought to Him demon-possessedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 12:38Τότε ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷThen answered HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 12:44τότε λέγειThen it saidSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 12:45
τότε πορεύεται καὶ παραλαμβάνειThen it goes and takes alongSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 13:26ὅτε δὲ ἐβλάστησεν ὁ χόρτοςbut when sprouted the wheat Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 13:36Τότε ἀφεὶς τοὺς ὄχλουςThen He left the crowdsSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 15:1Τότε προσέρχονται τῷ ἸησοῦThen came to JesusSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 15:12Τότε προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ Then when the disciplesSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 15:28τότε ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἸησοῦςThen when Jesus answeredSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 16:12 τότε συνῆκανThen understoodSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 16:20τότε διεστείλατο τοῖς μαθηταῖςThen He warned the disciplesSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 16:21Ἀπὸ τότε ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς δεικνύεινFrom that time Jesus showedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event forward
Matthew 16:24Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπενThen Jesus saidSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 17:13τότε συνῆκαν οἱ μαθηταὶThen understood the disciples Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 17:19
Τότε προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ τῷ ἸησοῦThen when came the disciples to JesusSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 18:21Τότε προσελθὼν αὐτῷ ὁ ΠέτροςThen when came to Him the PeterSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 18:32 τότε προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτὸνThen when called himSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 19:13 Τότε ⸀προσηνέχθησαν αὐτῷThen when brought to HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 19:27Τότε ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ΠέτροςThen when answered the PeterSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 20:20 Τότε προσῆλθεν αὐτῷThen when came to HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 21:1 Καὶ ὅτε ἤγγισανAnd when approachedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 22:8τότε λέγειThen he saidSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 22:13τότε ὁ βασιλεὺς εἶπενThen the king saidSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 22:15Τότε πορευθέντες οἱ ΦαρισαῖοThen when the PhariseesSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 22:21τότε λέγει αὐτοῖςThen He said to themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 23:1Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησενThen the Jesus said Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 24:9Τότε παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶςThen they will deliver youSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 24:16τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ ἸουδαίᾳThen the ones in the JudeaSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 24:21ἔσται γὰρ τότε θλῖψις μεγάληFor then will be tribulation greatSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 24:23τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃThen if anyone to you may say Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 24:40τότε δύο ἔσονται ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷThen two men will be in the fieldSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:1Τότε ὁμοιωθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶνThen will be like the kingdom of the heavensSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:7τότε ἠγέρθησαν πᾶσαι αἱ παρθένοιThen arose all the virginsSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:31 τότε καθίσει ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦThen He will sit upon throne glorious of HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:34 τότε ἐρεῖ ὁ βασιλεὺςThen he will say the KingSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:37 τότε ἀποκριθήσονται αὐτῷ οἱ δίκαιοι Then will answer to Him the righteousSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:41τότε ἐρεῖ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ εὐωνύμωνThen He will say to the ones at leftSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:44τότε ἀποκριθήσονται Then they will answer Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 25:45τότε ἀποκριθήσεται αὐτοῖςThen He will answer themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:3Τότε συνήχθησανThen were gatheredSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:14Τότε πορευθεὶς εἷς τῶν δώδεκαThen went one of the twelveSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:16καὶ ἀπὸ τότε ἐζήτει and from then he soughtSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:31Τότε λέγει αὐτοῖςThen He says to themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:36Τότε ἔρχεται μετ’ αὐτῶνThen He came with themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:38τότε λέγει αὐτοῖςThen He says to themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:45τότε ἔρχεταιThen He cameSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:50τότε προσελθόντεςThen when He cameSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:52τότε λέγει αὐτῷThen He says to themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:56τότε οἱ μαθηταὶ πάντες ἀφέντεςThen all the disciples leavingSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:65 τότε ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς διέρρηξενthen the chief priest toreSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:67τότε ἐνέπτυσαν Then they spatSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 26:74τότε ἤρξατο καταθεματίζειν Then he began to curseSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:3Τότε ἰδὼνThen seeing Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:9τότε ἐπληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲνThen was fulfilled Subsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:13τότε λέγει αὐτῷ Then he said to HimSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:16εἶχον δὲ τότε δέσμιονBut then they were holding prisonerSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:26τότε ἀπέλυσενThen he releasedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:27Τότε οἱ στρατιῶταιThen the soldiersSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:38Τότε σταυροῦνταιThen were crucifiedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 27:58τότε ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἐκέλευσενThen the Pilate orderedSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event
Matthew 28:10τότε λέγει αὐταῖςThen He said to themSubsequent actionFirst event followed by second event

 

Appendix Three

Chart of αἰῶνος Usage in the New Testament 

Chronological Keys

 

I am not suggesting that αἰῶνος denies the doctrine of eternal life or the eternality of God. When I use the phrase  “Definite Period of Time” in the chart below, I am only suggesting that this phrase has definite, but not exclusive, limits. God’s existence is not limited in any way, but the time frame in view with αἰῶνος refers to a particular time, without reference to what happens after that period of time. God wants to emphasize a particular period of time with αἰῶνος. Because I have not completed these studies, I cannot rule out a definite period of time to refer to eternity. I have included  very stilted translations intended only to track the word order, at times. I also like to practice some degree of verbal correspondence. 

VERSETEXTTRANSLATIONTIMEPOINT
Matthew 13:22;
Mark 4:19
ἡ μέριμνα τοῦ αἰῶνοςWorry of the AgePresentPresent Worry
John 9:32ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος οὐκ ἠκούσθηOut of the Age has not been heardPastNot heard before
Luke 20:34Οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου γαμοῦσιν καὶ γαμίσκονταιSons of this age marry and are given in marriagePresentPresent Worry
1 Corinthians 1:20συζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτουDebater of this agePresentPresent Age
1 Corinthians 2:6σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου but wisdom not of this agePresentPresent Age
Matthew 13:39ὁ δὲ θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν,and the harvest is the consummation of the ageFutureConsummation of Age
Matthew 13:40 οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνοςso it shall be at the consummation of the ageFutureConsummation of Age
Matthew 13:49τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνοςthe consummation of the ageFutureConsummation of Age
Matthew 28:20τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνοςthe consummation of the ageFutureConsummation of Age
Additional Verses
Luke 16:9Καὶ ἐγὼ ὑμῖν λέγω, ἑαυτοῖς ποιήσατε φίλους ἐκ τοῦ μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας, ἵνα ὅταν ἐκλίπῃ δέξωνται ὑμᾶς εἰς τὰς αἰωνίους σκηνάς.And I say to you, make yourself friends of the mamon of unrighteousnes, that when it fails, they will receive you into the ages dwellings.Now and FutureConsummation of the Ages
2 Timothy 1:9τοῦ σώσαντος ἡμᾶς

καὶ καλέσαντος κλήσει ἁγίᾳ,
οὐ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα ἡμῶν
ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἰδίαν πρόθεσιν καὶ χάριν,
τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ
πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων,
Who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace, the one given to us in Christ Jesus before the agesPast AgesPast Ages
1 Corinthians 2:7ἀλλὰ λαλοῦμεν θεοῦ σοφίαν ἐν μυστηρίῳ τὴν ἀποκεκρυμμένην, ἣν προώρισεν ὁ θεὸς πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς δόξαν ἡμῶνbut we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, the hidden of the God before the ages to our gloryPast AgesPast Ages
1 Corinthians 10:11ταῦτα δὲ τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις, ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντηκενBut these things befell them as an example, but written for our instruction, to the ones whom the ends of the ages reach.Now and FutureNow and Future
Galatians 1:5ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.to whom the glory to the ages of the ages, amen.Now and FutureNow and Future
Ephesians 3:9καὶ φωτίσαι [πάντας] τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ ἀποκεκρυμμένου ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων ἐν τῷ θεῷ τῷ τὰ πάντα κτίσαντιand to light all what is the administration of the mystery, the hidden one from the ages to the God Who created all things Past to PresentPast to Present
Ephesians 3:11κατὰ πρόθεσιν τῶν αἰώνων ἣν ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν,according to purpose of the ages which He did in Christ Jesus the Lord of usPast to PresentPast to Present
Ephesians 3:21αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς πάσας τὰς γενεὰς τοῦ αἰῶνος τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.to him the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all the generations of the age of the ages, amenPresent to FuturePresent to Future
Philippians 4:20τῷ δὲ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ ἡμῶν ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήνNow to the God and Father of us the glory to the ages of the agesPresent to FuturePresent to Future
Colossians 1:26τὸ μυστήριον τὸ ἀποκεκρυμμένον ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν γενεῶν– νῦν δὲ ἐφανερώθη τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ,the mystery the one hidden from the ages and from the generations–but now manifest to His saintsPast to PresentPast to Present
1 Timothy 1:17Τῷ δὲ βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων, ἀφθάρτῳ ἀοράτῳ μόνῳ θεῷ, τιμὴ καὶ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.but to Whom the King of the ages, immortal, invisible only God, honor and glory to the ages of the ages, amen.Present to FuturePresent to Future
2 Timothy 4:18ῥύσεταί με ὁ κύριος ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου πονηροῦ καὶ σώσει εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐπουράνιον· ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.The Lord will rescue me from all works of evil and will save me to the kingdom of Him, the heavenly; to Whom the glory to the ages of the ages, amen.Present to FuturePresent to Future
Hebrews 9:26ἐπεὶ ἔδει αὐτὸν πολλάκις παθεῖν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου· νυνὶ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς ἀθέτησιν [τῆς] ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ πεφανέρωταιOtherwise must he many to suffer from the foundation of the world. But now once for the completion of the ages to put away sin through the sacrifice of Him has made knownPresent to FuturePresent to Future
Hebrews 13:21καταρτίσαι ὑμᾶς ἐν παντὶ ἀγαθῷ εἰς τὸ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ, ποιῶν ἐν ἡμῖν τὸ εὐάρεστον ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων], ἀμήν.equip you in every good work to do the will of Him, doing in us the pleasing before him through Jesus Christ, to Whom the glory to the ages of the ages, amen.Present to FuturePresent to Future
1 Peter 4:11εἴ τις λαλεῖ, ὡς λόγια θεοῦ· εἴ τις διακονεῖ, ὡς ἐξ ἰσχύος ἧς χορηγεῖ ὁ θεός, ἵνα ἐν πᾶσιν δοξάζηται ὁ θεὸς διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ᾧ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήνIf anyone speaks, as the words of God. If anyone serves, as out of the strength which the God supplies, that in all may be glorified the God through Jesus Christ to Whom is the glory and the power to the ages of the ages, amen. Present to FuturePresent to Future
Revelation 1:6καὶ ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς βασιλείαν, ἱερεῖς τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων]· ἀμήν.and He has made us a kingdom, priests to the God and Father of us, to Whom the glory and the power to the ages [of the ages]. Amen.Present to FuturePresent to Future
Revelation 1:18 καὶ ὁ ζῶν, καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾅδουand the living One, and was dead and behold I am alive to the ages of the ages and I have the keys of the death and the HadesPast, Present, FuturePast, Present, Future
Revelation 4:9Καὶ ὅταν δώσουσιν τὰ ζῷα δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ εὐχαριστίαν τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνωνand when the living creatures will give glory and honor and thanks to the One sitting upon the throne, to Him who lives to the ages of the agesFutureFuture
Revelation 4:10πεσοῦνται οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἐνώπιον τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου λέγοντεςThe twenty four elders will be falling before the one seated upon the throne and the living creatures will worship to the ages of the ages and cast their crowns before the throne sayingFutureFuture
Revelation 5:13καὶ πᾶν κτίσμα ὃ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντα ἤκουσα λέγοντας·
τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ

ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος
εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων
and all created things which are in the heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea and all the things in them, I heard saying to the One sitting upon the throne and to the Lamb be the blessing and the honor and the glory and the power to the ages of the agesFutureFuture
Revelation 7:12λέγοντες·
ἀμήν, ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ σοφία καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ἀμήν.
saying, amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thanksgiving and the honor and the power and the strength to our God to the ages of the ages. amenFutureFuture
Revelation 10:6καὶ ὤμοσεν ἐν τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ὃς ἔκτισεν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ, ὅτι χρόνος οὐκέτι ἔσταιand swore by the Living One to the ages of the ages, Who created the heaven and all things in it and the earth and all things in it and the sea and all things in it, that time no longer isFutureFuture
Revelation 11:15Καὶ ὁ ἕβδομος ἄγγελος ἐσάλπισεν· καὶ ἐγένοντο φωναὶ μεγάλαι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ λέγοντες·
ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κόσμου τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν

καὶ τοῦ χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ,
καὶ βασιλεύσει εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.
Then the seventh angel trumpeted. and were great voices saying: has become the kingdom of the world of the Lord of us and of the Christ of us and He will reign to the ages of the agesFutureFuture
Revelation 14:11καὶ ὁ καπνὸς τοῦ βασανισμοῦ αὐτῶν εἰς αἰῶνας αἰώνων ἀναβαίνει, καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἀνάπαυσιν ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς οἱ προσκυνοῦντες τὸ θηρίον καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ καὶ εἴ τις λαμβάνει τὸ χάραγμα τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦand the smoke of their torment to the ages of the ages arises, and not having pause day and night the ones worshiping the beast and the image of him and if anyone receives the mark of the name of him.FutureFuture
Revelation 15:7καὶ ἓν ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων ἔδωκεν τοῖς ἑπτὰ ἀγγέλοις ἑπτὰ φιάλας χρυσᾶς γεμούσας τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνωνand one of the four living creatures gave to the seven angels golden bowls full of the wrath of God the living to the ages of the agesFuture Future
Revelation 19:3Καὶ δεύτερον εἴρηκαν·
ἁλληλουϊά·
καὶ ὁ καπνὸς αὐτῆς ἀναβαίνει εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.
and a second time they said hallelujah. and the smoke of her arises to the ages of the agesFutureFuture
Revelation 20:10καὶ ὁ διάβολος ὁ πλανῶν αὐτοὺς ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ θείου ὅπου καὶ τὸ θηρίον καὶ ὁ ψευδοπροφήτης, καὶ βασανισθήσονται ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνωνand the devil who deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where also the beast and the false prophet, and they will be tormented day and night to the ages of the agesFuture Future
Revelation 22:5καὶ νὺξ οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν χρείαν φωτὸς λύχνου καὶ φωτὸς ἡλίου, ὅτι κύριος ὁ θεὸς φωτίσει ἐπ’ αὐτούς, καὶ βασιλεύσουσιν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.and night will not be and not having need of light of a lamp and light of sun, because lord the God will light them, and they will reign to the ages of the agesFuture Future
Ephesians 2:7ἵνα ἐνδείξηται ἐν τοῖς αἰῶσιν τοῖς ἐπερχομένοις τὸ ὑπερβάλλον πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἐν χρηστότητι ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦthat He may show in the ages to come the surpassing riches of the grace of Him in the kindness toward us in Christ Jesus FutureFuture

 

Appendix Four

Chart of εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα  Usage In the New Testament

Chronological Keys

 

I am not suggesting that εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα  denies the doctrine of eternal life or the eternality of God. When I use the phrase “Definite Period of Time” in the chart below, I am only suggesting that this phrase has definite, but not exclusive, limits. God’s existence is not limited in any way, but the time frame in view with εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα refers to a particular time, without reference to what happens after that period of time. So, if the Son abides in the house for a definite period of time (εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα), we must not assume that He is no longer abiding in the house after that period of time. God wants to emphasize a particular period of time with εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. I have included  very stilted translations intended only to track the word order, at times. I also like to practice some degree of verbal correspondence.

VERSETEXTTRANSLATIONTIMEPOINT
Matthew 21:19Μηκέτι ἐκ σοῦ καρπὸς γένηται εἰς τὸν αἰῶναNo longer bear fruit to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Mark 3:29οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματοςNot has forgiveness to the age, but guilty of age sinNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Mark 11:14Μηκέτι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐκ σοῦ μηδεὶς καρπὸν φάγοιNo longer to the age of you no one eat fruitNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Luke 1:55τῷ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.to Abraham and to his seed to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 4:14οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσωαὐτῷ
γενήσεται ἐν αὐτῷ πηγὴ ὕδατος ἁλλομένου εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον.
no never will thirst to the age, but will be in him a well of water springing up to life ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 6:58ὁ τρώγων τοῦτον τὸν ἄρτον ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.the one who eats (chews) this the bread will live to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 6:51ἐάν τις φάγῃ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ἄρτου ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶναIf anyone eats of this the bread he will live to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 8:35οὐ μένει ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ὁ υἱὸς μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶναdoes not abide in the house to the age the son abides to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 8:51 θάνατον οὐ μὴ θεωρήσῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶναdeath no never shall see to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 8:52οὐ μὴ γεύσηται θανάτου εἰς τὸν αἰῶναno never to taste death to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 10:28κἀγὼ δίδωμι αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶναand I will give to them life age, and no never be destroyed to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 11:26

καὶ πᾶς ὁ ζῶν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ μὴ ἀποθάνῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶναand all the one living and believing in Me no never shall die to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 12:34 Ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν ἐκ τοῦ νόμου ὅτι ὁ χριστὸς μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶναwe have heard out of the law that the Christ abides to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 13:8Οὐ μὴ νίψῃς μου τοὺς πόδας εἰς τὸν αἰῶναno never shall wash the feet of me to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
John 14:16καὶ ἄλλον παράκλητον δώσει ὑμῖν ἵνα ᾖ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰς τὸν αἰῶναand another Helper he will give to you that He will be with you to the end of the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
1 Corinthians 8:13οὐ μὴ φάγω κρέα εἰς τὸν αἰῶναno never I will eat meat to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
2 Corinthians 9:9 ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶναthe righteousness of Him abides to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 1:8Ὁ θρόνος σου ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνοςthe throne of You, the God, to the age of the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 5:6Σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶναYou priest to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 6:20κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ ἀρχιερεὺς γενόμενος εἰς τὸν αἰῶναaccording to the order Melchizedek high priest You having become to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 7:17

Σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ.You priest to the age according to the order MelchizedekNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 7:21Σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶναYou priest to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 7:24ὁ δὲ διὰ τὸ μένειν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν αἰῶναbut through the One, Him to abide to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
Hebrews 7:28εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τετελειωμένονto the age has made completeNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
1 Peter 1:25τὸ δὲ ῥῆμα κυρίου μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶναbut the word of Lord abides to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
1 John 2:17 ὁ δὲ ποιῶν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶναbut the one doing the will of the God abides to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period
2 John 1:2καὶ μεθ’ ἡμῶν ἔσται εἰς τὸν αἰῶναand with us to the ageNow to the ageDefinite Time Period

 

Appendix Five

Chart of παρουσία Usage In the New Testament

Chronological Keys

 

I have created a chart of the usage of παρουσία and related forms to help me understand the usage in the New Testament. I have included  very stilted translations intended only to track the word order, at times. I also like to practice some degree of verbal correspondence.

VERSETEXTTRANSLATIONTIMEPOINT
Matthew 24:27ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἐξέρχεται ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ φαίνεται ἕως δυσμῶν οὕτως ἔσται ἡ παρουσία τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπουfor as the lightning comes from the east and shines to the west, so also will be the coming of the Son of the Man.After Great TribulationFuture Point / Jesus
Matthew 24:37ὥσπερ γὰρ αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ Νῶε, οὕτως ἔσται ἡ παρουσία τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπουFor just as the days of the Noah, so also will be the coming of the Son of the ManLike Days of Noah, so also the coming of the Son of ManLike Days of Noah/Jesus
Matthew 24:39καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν ἕως ἦλθεν ὁ κατακλυσμὸς καὶ ἦρεν ἅπαντας, οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ἡ παρουσία τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπουand they did not know until the flood came and took them all away; so is also the coming of the Son of the ManThey did not know until the flood cameIgnorance of flood until sudden appearance/ Jesus
1 Corinthians 15:23 ἕκαστος δὲ ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ τάγματι· ἀπαρχὴ Χριστός ἔπειτα οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦbut each in it own order; first Christ, then the ones of Christ in the coming of HimChrist resurrected first, then those people in Christ at His comingChrist resurrected first, then all believers at His coming/ Jesus
1 Corinthians 16:17χαίρω δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ παρουσίᾳ Στεφανᾶ καὶ Φορτουνάτου καὶ Ἀχαϊκοῦ ὅτι τὸ ὑμέτερον ὑστέρημα οὗτοι ἀνεπλήρωσανthe coming of Stephanas, Fortunatus and AchaicusThey arrivedPast Event/ Workers
2 Corinthians 7:6παρεκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ ΤίτουGod comforted us in the coming of TitusHe arrivedPast Event/Titus
2 Corinthians 7:7οὐ μόνον δὲ ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦand not only by his comingHe arrivedPast Event/Titus
2 Corinthians 10:10ἡ δὲ παρουσία τοῦ σώματος ἀσθενὴςbut the coming of his body weakHe arrivedPast Event/Paul
Philippians 2:12μὴ ὡς ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ μου μόνον ἀλλὰ νῦν πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐν τῇ ἀπουσίᾳ μουnot in the coming of me only, but also in my not comingComing v. not comingPast Event/Paul
1 Thessalonians 2:19μπροσθεν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῇ αὐτοῦ παρουσίᾳbefore the Lord of us Jesus in the coming of HimComing in the futureFuture Event/Jesus
1 Thessalonians 3:13ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ μετὰ πάντων τῶν ἁγίων αὐτοῦin the coming of the Lord our Jesus with all the saints of HimComing in the future with all the saintsFuture Event/Jesus
1 Thessalonians 5:23ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τηρηθείηin the coming of the Lord of us Jesus Christ may keepComing in the futureFuture Event/Jesus
2 Thessalonians 2:9 οὗ ἐστιν ἡ παρουσία
ατ’ ἐνέργειαν τοῦ Σατανᾶ
whose is the coming according to work of the satanComing the futureFuture Event/lawless one
James 5:8 ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικενthat the coming of the Lord has nearedComing in the futureFuture Event/ Jesus
1 John 2:28καὶ μὴ αἰσχυνθῶμεν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦand my not be ashamed before Him in the coming of HimComing in the futureFuture Event/Jesus
1 Thessalonians 4:15ὅτι ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι εἰς τὴν παρουσίαν τοῦ κυρίου οὐ μὴ φθάσωμεν τοὺς κοιμηθένταςthat we the living ones, the remaining ones, to the appear of the Lord no never precede the sleeping ones Coming in the futureFuture Event/Jesus
2 Peter 1:16`ἐγνωρίσαμεν ὑμῖν τὴν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δύναμιν καὶ παρουσίανwe made known to you the power and coming of the Lord, our Jesus ChristPast coming in the fleshPast Event/Jesus
2 Peter 3:12τὴν παρουσίαν τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμέραςthe coming of the day of the GodFuture comingFuture Event/Day of God
Matthew 24:3 καὶ τί τὸ σημεῖον τῆς σῆς παρουσίαςand what the sign of the coming of youFuture comingFuture Event/Jesus
Philippians 1:26διὰ τῆς ἐμῆς παρουσίας πάλιν πρὸς ὑμᾶςthrough the coming of me again to youFuture comingFuture Event/Paul
2 Thessalonians 2:1ὑπὲρ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ concerning the appearing of the Lord our Jesus ChristFuture comingFuture Event/Jesus
2 Thessalonians 2:8καὶ καταργήσει τῇ ἐπιφανείᾳ τῆς παρουσίας αὐτοῦand nullify by the appearance of the coming of HimFuture comingFuture Event/Jesus
James 5:7 ἕως τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίουuntil the coming of the LordFuture comingFuture Event/Jesus
2 Peter 3:4Ποῦ ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία τῆς παρουσίας αὐτοῦwhere is the promise of His comingFuture comingFuture Event/Jesus

 

Appendix Six

Discussion of the Term Age

in the New Testament

 

 

For a complete discussion, click here for the free Ebook:  The Concept of Ages in the New Testament

 

In this appendix, I will lay out some of the usage of the term “age” in the New Testament. Different translations render the term “age” in its various forms as world, forever, eternal and other things. In this brief overview, perhaps the terms related to “age” may be clarified and some confusion reduced. Although many people believe that the term “age” denies eternity, the writers of the New Testament use the term as a period of time with specific events occurring during that time period. When used alone, the term age does not necessarily affirm or deny eternity, but often focuses upon the present time and the events happing during that period of time, until another age comes into view. Things may continue or things may change in the new age. God revealed various ages and the substantial changes differences between the ages. People who claim that “age” never means eternity and people who claim it always means eternity often grind particular theological axes at the expense of the text. General usage and specific context must decide the meaning. We will review the evidence below and you can reach your own conclusions with careful prayer and thought. I will share my understandings, although the text must speak for itself. Please do not confuse what God revealed in the text with what some saint says. I urge all saints to read the word for themselves, study what you read by comparing Scripture with Scripture, invite and consider feedback from other saints, and then examine everything carefully, and hold on to the good. Be sure to heed what you read in the Scriptures and remember that God loves to express His love in us and through us.

Many of the New Testament writers had a Hebrew background which influenced their writing styles. Of course, God superintended the entire process of recording His revelation in the New Testament, so that the words of God were recorded to perfection. In other words, verbal and plenary inspiration characterized both the Old Testament and the New Testament. Therefore, a few verses in Daniel may provide some background for the New Testament concepts of age and periods of time.

Daniel wrote that to the Son of Man “was given dominion, glory and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations and men of every language might serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion which will not pass away; and His kingdom is one which will not be destroyed (Daniel 7:14). In Aramaic, Daniel wrote His dominion is (a) an everlasting dominion (“שָׁלְטָנֵ֞הּ שָׁלְטָ֤ן עָלַם֙“); (b) which will not pass away (“דִּֽי־לָ֣א יֶעְדֵּ֔ה וּמַלְכוּתֵ֖הּ“–peal certainty) and will not be destroyed (“דִּי־לָ֥א תִתְחַבַּֽל“–hitpaal causative negative). The point is that nothing shall interfere with His kingdom or His reign. Consider Daniel writing from a perspective that he has seen Jerusalem fall, as well as many nations and empires fall to the the Babylonians, Medes, and Persians; such would not be the case with dominion received from the Ancient of Days. The context of “everlasting dominion” relates directly to rule in the Son of Man’s kingdom. Therefore, we should be careful when terms like “everlasting” (“עָלַם֙“) have been tied to a specific period of time–the duration of the Son of Man’s kingdom on earth. In no way does this passage suggest that the Son of Man dies or stops ruling in that kingdom, but making too much of “everlasting” should cause use to be notice the tie to the kingdom of the Son of Man. This same tie to the dominion of the Son of Man occurs in Daniel 7:27: “Then the sovereignty, the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the people of the saints of the Highest One; His kingdom an everlasting kingdom, and all the dominions will serve and obey Him” (“וּמַלְכוּתָ֨ה וְשָׁלְטָנָ֜א וּרְבוּתָ֗א דִּ֚י מַלְכְוָת֙ תְּחֹ֣ות כָּל־שְׁמַיָּ֔א יְהִיבַ֕ת לְעַ֖ם קַדִּישֵׁ֣י עֶלְיֹונִ֑ין  וְכֹל֙ שָׁלְטָ֣נַיָּ֔א לֵ֥הּ יִפְלְח֖וּן וְיִֽשְׁתַּמְּעֽוּן“). Notice that His dominion is dominion age (“עָלַ֔ם“–singular). If you translate it as everlasting, then you confront an issue in Daniel 9:24, where  we read that seventy weeks have been decreed to bring in, among other things, righteousness ages (“וּלְהָבִ֖יא צֶ֣דֶק עֹֽלָמִ֑ים”).  In this verse, however, Daniel used a plural form עֹֽלָמִ֑ים, intending to convey a longer period of time than the singular. Consider Psalm 145:13, where the Psalmist described the “your dominion” dominion to all ages (“מַֽלְכוּתְךָ֗ מַלְכ֥וּת כָּל־עֹֽלָמִ֑ים”). Because the Old Testament writers also used the term “ages” (“עֹֽלָמִ֑ים”), translators should be careful not to equate the singular “age” with the plural “ages.” If the singular “age” ever means eternity, then were the Old Testament writers speaking of multiple eternities? The same issues appear in the New Testament between “age” and “age of the ages.” Daniel also wrote that “Many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake, these to age life, but the others to disgrace and contempt age” (“וְרַבִּ֕ים מִיְּשֵׁנֵ֥י אַדְמַת־עָפָ֖ר יָקִ֑יצוּ אֵ֚לֶּה לְחַיֵּ֣י עֹולָ֔ם וְאֵ֥לֶּה לַחֲרָפֹ֖ות לְדִרְאֹ֥ון עֹולָֽם”) (Daniel 12:2). Daniel contrasted the phrase “age life” (“לְחַיֵּ֣י עֹולָ֔ם”) with “to contempt age” (“דִרְאֹ֥ון עֹולָֽם”). If one chooses to translate “עֹולָֽם” in Daniel 12:2 as “eternal,” as many translators do, then the contrast with “כָּל־עֹֽלָמִ֑ים” in Psalm 145:13 describing the kingdom seems hard to harmonize, because the force of “all ages” would be changed to merely “everlasting kingdom,” losing all sense of the plural phrase. Furthermore, the time of rescue seems coordinate with the inauguration of the Millennial Kingdom In Daniel 12:1-2. Therefore, the Old Testament presents the same uses of the singular and plural rendered “ages” or eternity.

 

 

Section One

The End of the Age Defined

1.1 The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares.  Matthew 24-25 relates directly to the The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares in Matthew 13:36-43 and other parables. The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares provides great help in understanding other prophecies in the Bible. In that parable, Jesus explained that God sowed seed (wheat) into the world, and then the devil sowed evil seed (tares) into the world. Until the end of the age, God allows both to grow in the world until the harvest. At harvest, God will send forth His angels and will gather the wicked out of His kingdom, bundle them together, and throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then God will gather the sons of the kingdom (wheat) into His barn, where they will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Careful examination of the details of the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares helps us understand Matthew 24. At the outset, please notice that the time span of the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares begins in the Garden of Eden and Ends with Harvest at the consummation of the age. The scope of the parable alone should alert us to its significance for understanding prophecy. Therefore, we may begin with a look at the phrase “consummation of the age” to understand its usage in Matthew 24-25 and The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares.

1.2.1 The Phrase “the consummation of the age” (“συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”).  The phrase “consummation of the age” (“συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”) appears in several places in the New Testament. The difference between the singular “age” and the plural “ages” makes a very big difference in the New Testament. Confusing the term “age” with the term “ages” often leads to great confusion. I also considered a discussion of predicative and attributive positions of nouns, but the for sake of time and brevity, avoided it. I hope that further study of all parts of the syntax regarding “age” would produce valuable exegesis.

1.2.1.1. The Harvest. And the harvest is consummation of age (“ὁ δὲ θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν”) (Matthew 13:39).

1.2.1.2 The Tares. So just as the tares are gathered up and burned with fire, so shall it be at the consummation of the age” (ὥσπερ οὖν συλλέγεται τὰ ζιζάνια καὶ πυρὶ [κατα]καίεται, οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος”) (Matthew 13:40).

1.2.1.3 The Angels. “So it will be in the consummation of the age,” the angels will come forth and take the wicked from among the righteous” (“οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος· ἐξελεύσονται οἱ ἄγγελοι καὶ ἀφοριοῦσιν τοὺς πονηροὺς ἐκ μέσου τῶν δικαίων”) (Matthew 13:49).

1.2.1.4 The Great Commission. Jesus promised to be with His disciples until the end of the age: “and lo, I am with you all the days until the consummation of the age.” (“καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”) (Matthew 28:20).

1.2.1.5 The Consummation of the Ages. The phrase “consummation of the ages” (notice the plural “ages”) described the time when Jesus has been manifested to put away sin: “Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself” (“ἐπεὶ ἔδει αὐτὸν πολλάκις παθεῖν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου· νυνὶ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς ἀθέτησιν [τῆς] ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ πεφανέρωται”) (Hebrews 9:26). This verse helps us understand that more than one age has taken place from the foundation of the world until Christ manifested. Please keep in mind the Matthew verses dealing with the consummation of the age (singular age) describe the age when the harvest occurs. We will give further attention to the plural “the ages” below.

1.2.1.6 Summary of Usage of Consummation of the Age. Therefore, we know that the phrase “consummation of the age” in Matthew described a specific period of time related to one specific age with specific events designated. Let us look at those events. 

1.3 The Links between Matthew 24-25 and the Parable of the Wheat and Tares.  The link between Matthew 24:3 and The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares in Matthew 13 seems explicit based upon the phrase “consummation of the age” (“συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος”), which occurs three times in Matthew 13 describing the harvest and the time of burning the tares, where the angels take the wicked from among the righteous at “the consummation of the age.” We can pinpoint this time on the timeline of prophecy because Matthew 24 presents a precise chronology of events.

1.3.1 The Harvest at the End of the Age. In the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares, God declined to pull up the tares from the world because He did not want to uproot the wheat with the tares, so He left both to grow together until the harvest, the special time He set. When is the harvest? Several events mark the harvest.

1.3.1.1 The Gathering Out of the Wicked (Tares). The harvest occurs when the Son of Man sends forth His angels to gather the wicked (tares) out of His kingdom for judgment (Matthew 13:41). This harvest comes without notice and happens suddenly. Having gathered up the wicked, they are bundled together, and cast into the furnace of fire, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. Notice that they do not appear for detailed judgment, but rather Jesus emphasized their quick removal from the earth and delivery to the furnace of fire.

1.3.1.2 The Shining Forth of the Righteous. At harvest, the righteous (wheat) are gathered into the barn of Jesus. After the wicked (the stumbling blocks and those who commit lawlessness) are gathered out of the kingdom of the Son of Man come to earth, then the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Therefore, the barn appears to be the kingdom of Jesus and His Father on earth. Compare the resurrection of Daniel 12:2 and the saints there shining in Daniel 12:3 after their resurrection.

1.3.2  Summary of the Harvest as the End of the Age. The harvest describes the removal of the wicked from the kingdom of God and the shining forth of the sons of the kingdom in the kingdom of their Father and the Son of Man. The harvest comes at the end of age, when Jesus establishes His Millennial Reign on earth. The order of events in Matthew 24-25 also clarifies the phrase “the consummation of the age” and amplifies the events described in The Parable of the Wheat and Tares. In a sense, they interact with each other. The order of events in a passage often provide details clarifying the meaning the passage. Such is the case in Matthew 24-25.

1.4.  The Order of Events. To be specific, the third question of the disciples in Matthew 24:3 concerns the sign of the end of the age. Based upon the order of events in Matthew 24, the “end of the age” occurs after the sign of the Son of Man appears in the sky, and after the tribes of the earth will mourn, and after Jesus sends forth His angels with a great trumpet and to gather His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other (Matthew 24:30-31). The parable of the tares and wheat provides explicit detail here. In Matthew 13:40,  we know that first the wicked (“tares”) are pulled up from the earth when the angels gather them out of the field, which is the world. Then sons of the kingdom (“wheat”) are left in the world to enjoy the reign of the Son of Man (Jesus) in the Millennial Kingdom. The righteous left upon the earth shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father (Matthew 13:40). Therefore, the end of the age refers to the inauguration of  the Millennial Reign of Christ when He sets up His kingdom on earth, when the righteous upon the earth shine forth. The wicked have been removed by the angels taking them away from the earth. The terms “age,” “ages,” and related uses of those terms help us expand our knowledge of New Testament concept of time events, not just the chronology of time. Time events mean special events of the time line, similar to the use of “καιρὸς” in the New Testament. 

 

Section Two

The Phrase “Into the Age”

2.1 To the Age. The phrase “to the age” describes a single age. Reviewing the New Testament usage of the phrase “to the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) provides further insight for Matthew 24-25. Please keep in mind the singular “age” here. We will look at the plural “ages” in the next section. Many translators take the phrase “to the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) to mean eternity. In my mind, based upon the usage below, the phrase “to the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) does not deny eternity, but focuses instead upon a particular age.  Focusing upon an age draws attention to something happening now and continuing to the age in view (not necessarily eternity). If we ignore the concept of the age, and always think eternity, then we miss the point at issue stressing present action within the present time continuing (not necessarily ending) to the age. The preposition “to” (“εἰς”) always occurs with the accusative case. It means often reaching a destination, and often means into the destination. In the context of age, the phrase “to the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) does not mean reaching the border of the age, but arrival into the age. The New Testament writers had a particular phrase to describe eternity, the ages of the ages (“τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”). If a writer wanted to express eternity, they could use that phrase; if they did not use that phrase, then we should ask why use another “age” phrase. The “age life” means life the age of the Son Man reigning as King on earth in the Kingdom of His Father and His own kingdom come to earth. Jesus frequently referred to the Kingdom of God and therefore also described age life that begins at the moment of salvation and guarantees happy entrance into the Millennial Kingdom and continued life therein. At other times, age life appears future. The context of each usage must decide.

2.1.2 The Barren Fig Tree. Jesus commanded a fig tree so that it would not bear fruit.

2.1.2.1 The Withered Fig Tree.  Matthew wrote: Seeing a lone fig tree by the road, He came to it and found nothing on it except leaves only; and He said to it, “No longer from you fruit shall be born into the age. And at once the fig tree withered.” (“καὶ ἰδὼν συκῆν μίαν ἐπὶ τῆς ὁδοῦ ἦλθεν ἐπ’ αὐτὴν καὶ οὐδὲν εὗρεν ἐν αὐτῇ εἰ μὴ φύλλα μόνον, καὶ λέγει αὐτῇ· μηκέτι ἐκ σοῦ καρπὸς γένηται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. καὶ ἐξηράνθη παραχρῆμα ἡ συκῆ”) And at once the fig tree withered. (Matthew 21:19). We know that the fig tree will not live to eternity, so the reference seems strained to extend the time frame to eternity. Here, the tree withers immediately and will not bear fruit from that time forward, unless it is restored in the Millennial Kingdom.

2.1.2.2 The Fig Tree.  Mark wrote:  “He having answered, He said to it, ‘No longer to the age no one to eat fruit of you!’ And His disciples were listening.”(“καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῇ· μηκέτι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐκ σοῦ μηδεὶς καρπὸν φάγοι. καὶ ἤκουον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ”) (Mark 11:14). In this case, it seems unlikely that the fig tree would live thousands of years or to eternity. It emphasizes the present bareness of the fig tree in the present age and continuing into the age.

2.1.3 Blasphemy against The Holy Spirit.  The one who blasphemes the Holy Spirit shall not have forgiveness into the age (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”), but guilty is of age sin (“ἀλλ’ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος”) (Mark 3:29). We will see the comparison to “age life” below. By focusing upon age here, Mark did not not suggest forgiveness later, but doom now and continuing into the end of the present age, when judgment would come. Notice that the adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”–genitive) modifies “life” here. In this case, the class of sin is age sin, an unforgivable sin in the age.

2.1.4 Abraham and His Descendants.  God gives help to Abraham and his descendants into the age (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.”) (Luke 1:55). Abraham and his descendants received help until they enter the coming age. In fact, the new age will bring the fulfillment of the New Covenant for Abraham and His descendants (Jeremiah 31:31Hebrews 8:8).

2.2 Well of Water. John wrote:  “But whoever drinks of the water that I will give him shall not thirst into the age; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to age life.” (“ὃς δ’ ἂν πίῃ ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος οὗ ἐγὼ δώσω αὐτῷ, οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσω αὐτῷ γενήσεται ἐν αὐτῷ πηγὴ ὕδατος ἁλλομένου εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (John 4:14). Jesus meant that He would give the water of life that (a) removed all thirst (double negative with subjunctive verb) from now into the age (Millennial Reign of Christ); and (b) the well of water He gives will spring up into age life (life in the Millennial Kingdom, the new age to come, consisting of the reign of Christ on earth for a thousand years (Revelation 20:1-7)). Remember that the term “eis” means into, not just stop at the border of the destination, so the age life means life into the Millennial Reign of Christ on earth; and (c) age life does not end when the Millennium ends.

2.3 Bread of Life.  Jesus said He is the Bread of Life. In the Bread of Life Discourse (John 6:26-58), Jesus described “age life,”  a term that often means new spiritual life starting at the moment of salvation, and continuing into the next age, which is the Millennial Reign of Christ upon earth. The focus upon age life does not deny eternal life, but instead focuses upon new spiritual life starting today by grace through faith and continues into the Millennial Kingdom. It guarantees that the person with “age life” shall be raised up on the last day to be with Jesus bodily in the Millennial Kingdom where Jesus reigns on earth for a thousand years, after He vanquishes His enemies.

2.4 Live to the Age. Jesus said: I am the living bread that came down out of heaven; if anyone eats of this bread, he will live into the age; and the bread also which I will give for the life of the world is My flesh.” (“ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς· ἐάν τις φάγῃ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ἄρτου ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ ὁ ἄρτος δὲ ὃν ἐγὼ δώσω ἡ σάρξ μού ἐστιν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς”) (John 6:51). As above, the promise of Jesus was the believer would live from now into the Millennial Kingdom.

2.5 Living Bread. Jesus said: “This is the bread which came down out of heaven; not as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live into the age.” (“οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, οὐ καθὼς ἔφαγον οἱ πατέρες καὶ ἀπέθανον· ὁ τρώγων τοῦτον τὸν ἄρτον ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.”) (John 6:58).  As Jesus described “age life,” He revealed that He is the Bread of Life, and He came down from heaven. The Bread of Life is unlike the bread given to the fathers who ate and died, emphasizing the temporal quality of that bread, but Jesus is spiritual bread that changes the believer so they will enter into the age of the Millennial Kingdom.

2.6 The Son Remains.  Jesus said that the slave does not remain in the house into the age (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”), but the son remains in the house into the age (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (John 8:35). Jesus emphasized that not all people will enter into the Millennial Age, but only the Son of Man, who will come and receive the kingdom from His Father, the Ancient of Days (Daniel 7:1-22). 

2.7 Keeps My Word. “Truly, truly, I say to you, if anyone keeps My word he will not see death into the age.” (“ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐάν τις τὸν ἐμὸν λόγον τηρήσῃ, θάνατον οὐ μὴ θεωρήσῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”–double negative with subjunctive) (John 8:51). Using the double negative with the subjunctive again, Jesus promised that people who keep His word will not see death into the age. Jesus did not mean that they die after the age of the Millennial Kingdom, but promised they would have spiritual life to enter into the Millennial Kingdom.

2.8  The Jews Said. John wrote: The Jews said to Him, “Now we know that You have a demon. Abraham died, and the prophets also; and You say, ‘If anyone keeps My word, he will not taste of death into the age.’” (“Εἶπον [οὖν] αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι· νῦν ἐγνώκαμεν ὅτι δαιμόνιον ἔχεις. Ἀβραὰμ ἀπέθανεν καὶ οἱ προφῆται, καὶ σὺ λέγεις· ἐάν τις τὸν λόγον μου τηρήσῃ, οὐ μὴ γεύσηται θανάτου εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.”)  (John 8:52). Jesus again used the double negative with the subjunctive to explain that saved believers will not taste death for the period of time stretching from the time of His words into the age of His Millennial Kingdom.

2.9.1 Age Life.  Jesus promised: “I give to them life age (“δίδωμι αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”), and they shall not be destroyed to the age” (“οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (John 10:28). Jesus again used the double negative wit the subjunctive to stress that “life age” does not mean destruction, when the ungodly are destroyed in Hades (see Afterlife for the use of the term “destroyed.”) The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies “life” (“ζωὴν”). 

2.9.2 Age Life Defined. Jesus defined “age life” as the life “all who live and believe in Me shall not die into the age” (“καὶ πᾶς ὁ ζῶν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ μὴ ἀποθάνῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”–double negative with subjunctive) (John 11:26). Jesus again used the double negative with the subjunctive to define the phrase “age life” and contrasted it to “resurrection.” Believers do not need to worry about dying before the Millennial Kingdom arrives, because Jesus guarantees they have “age life,” which means they will live into the Millennial Kingdom. Of course, Jesus means spiritual life, with bodily resurrection to enter the Millennial Age. The time of that resurrection occurs for saints at the Clouds Resurrection of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 and Daniel 12:2, and for others who died during the Tribulation at the beginning of the Millennial Reign.

2.10 Messiah Remains.  The crowd said to Jesus that according to the Law, “the Christ abides into the age” (“ὁ χριστὸς μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (John 12:34). The crowd read the Old Testament prophecies about Christ and understood He would abide into the age. This verse helps us understand the crowd had an expectation that Messiah would come and stay into the new age. They did not understand that Messiah would suffer first, and then enter His glory in the new age (Luke 24:6). Until then, He would be spiritually present with His believers (Matthew 28:20).

2.11 Peter’s Feet. Peter said to Him, “Into the age you shall not wash wash my feet!” Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me.” (“λέγει αὐτῷ Πέτρος· οὐ μὴ νίψῃς μου τοὺς πόδας εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς αὐτῷ· ἐὰν μὴ νίψω σε, οὐκ ἔχεις μέρος μετ’ ἐμοῦ.”)  (John 13:8)  Jesus again used the double negative with the subjunctive to describe age life. In this case, Jesus mean that He would wash the feet of Peter so that he would have age life, not by foot washing, but by faith; Jesus washed the feet of the disciples indicating the service of the Suffering Servant from then until He serves them in the Millennial Kingdom (Luke 12:37). 

2.12 The Helper. Jesus promised another Helper: “I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may be with you into the age” (“κἀγὼ ἐρωτήσω τὸν πατέρα καὶ ἄλλον παράκλητον δώσει ὑμῖν, ἵνα μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ᾖ,“)  (John 14:16). As Jesus neared His crucifixion and ascension, He promised that the Father would send the Helper to be with the disciples. Jesus again makes a kingdom promise that the Helper ministry would start then and continue into the Millennial Kingdom. Jesus did not deny the eternal ministry of the Holy Spirit, but emphasized His ministry from then into the Millennial Kingdom.

2.13 No Meat. “Therefore, if food causes my brother to stumble, I will not eat meat into the age, so that I will not cause my brother to stumble.”  (“διόπερ εἰ βρῶμα σκανδαλίζει τὸν ἀδελφόν μου, οὐ μὴ φάγω κρέα εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἵνα μὴ τὸν ἀδελφόν μου σκανδαλίσω.”)  (1 Corinthians 8:13). Paul used the same double negative with the subjunctive to describe action beginning then and continuing into the Millennial Kingdom. Paul was not focused upon eternity, but upon the specific period of time until Jesus reigns in the Millennial Kingdom.

2.14 God’s Righteousness.  As it is written, “HE SCATTERED ABROAD, HE GAVE TO THE POOR, HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS ENDURES INTO THE AGE.” (“καθὼς γέγραπται· ἐσκόρπισεν, ἔδωκεν τοῖς πένησιν, ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.“) (2 Corinthians 9:9) (quoting Psalm 112:9–“His righteousness endures forever”–“צִ֭דְקָתֹו עֹמֶ֣דֶת לָעַ֑ד“). As mentioned above, the kingdom of God dominates the Scriptures. Some translators render the Hebrew “לָעַ֑ד” as forever. The Psalmists used the phrase “עֹמֶ֣דֶת לָעַ֑ד” to refer to the praise of God (Psalm 111:10) and the righteousness of God (Psalm 111:3112:3112:9).  Based upon the other uses of the phrase “עֹמֶ֣דֶת לָעַ֑ד” in the Psalms, the translation of eternal or forever righteousness seems sound in Psalm 112:9. Even so, the term “לָעַ֑ד” by itself does not always reference eternity, because the hope of Psalm 9:18 ends when the one sees what one hoped for (Romans 8:24). Likewise, in Psalm 37:29, the righteous will dwell in the land “forever” (“לָעַ֑ד”), but we know that the entire earth will be burned up and destroyed with fire (2 Peter 3:10). In Psalm 61:8, the Psalmist declares he will sing praise to the name of God “forever” (“לָעַ֑ד”), but he qualifies it with paying his vows “day by day” (“יֹ֣ום׀ יֹֽום“). In Psalm 148, the Psalmist praised God for the creation of sun, moon, heavenly host, angels and others; He established them “forever and ever” (“וַיַּעֲמִידֵ֣ם לָעַ֣ד לְעֹולָ֑ם“). By using the phrase “forever and ever” (“וַיַּעֲמִידֵ֣ם לָעַ֣ד לְעֹולָ֑ם“), the Psalmist introduced some doubt in my mind that “עֹמֶ֣דֶת לָעַ֑ד” in Psalm 112:9 is the same period of time described by “forever and ever” (“וַיַּעֲמִידֵ֣ם לָעַ֣ד לְעֹולָ֑ם“)” in Psalm 148:6 (see also Isaiah 30:8). Therefore, the phrase “εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα” in 2 Corintians 9:9 may refer to eternity, and not merely the end of the age. A fuller discussion of the Hebrew terms for eternity would be helpful to decide the matter finally. Based upon New Testament usage of the phrase “εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα,” I still prefer the translation “age” because of the New Testament context and Psalm 148:6, but I appreciate the strong argument against such a translation.

2.15 Priesthood of Christ.  Christ is a priest into the age according to the order of Melchizedek (“ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (Hebrews 5:6–quoting a Melchizedek passage from Psalm 110:4–(“יִנָּחֵ֗ם אַתָּֽה־כֹהֵ֥ן לְעֹולָ֑ם עַל־דִּ֝בְרָתִ֗י מַלְכִּי־צֶֽדֶק”). The Hebrew term “לְעֹולָ֑ם” describes the length of time of that priesthood. 

2.16  Jesus Has Entered.  Hebrews provides: “where Jesus has entered as a forerunner for us, having become a high priest into the age according to the order of Melchizedek. (“ὅπου πρόδρομος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν εἰσῆλθεν Ἰησοῦς, κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ ἀρχιερεὺς γενόμενος εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (Hebrews 6:20). The time frame in view could be eternity, but the writer may have intended a reference to the Millennial Kingdom. In the alternative, the writer may have stressed the eternality of the high priestly work of Jesus. By translating the phrase “into the age” literally, the reader can understand the semantic range of the phrase, which includes both a reference to the Millennial Kingdom and eternity beyond. 

2.17  Witnessed. Hebrews provides:  “For it is witnessed of Him, ‘YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK’” (“μαρτυρεῖται γὰρ ὅτι σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ“) (Hebrews 7:17–quoting a Melchizedek passage from Psalm 110:4–(“יִנָּחֵ֗ם אַתָּֽה־כֹהֵ֥ן לְעֹולָ֑ם עַל־דִּ֝בְרָתִ֗י מַלְכִּי־צֶֽדֶק”). The Hebrew term “לְעֹולָ֑ם” describes the length of time of that priesthood. By translating the phrase “into the age” literally, the reader can understand the semantic range of the phrase, which includes both a reference to the Millennial Kingdom and eternity beyond. 

2.18 Sworn.  Hebrews provides:  “For they indeed became priests without an oath, but He with an oath through the One who said to Him, ‘THE LORD HAS SWORN AND WILL NOT CHANGE HIS MIND, “YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER” ’”; (“οἱ μὲν γὰρ χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας εἰσὶν ἱερεῖς γεγονότες, ὁ δὲ μετὰ ὁρκωμοσίας διὰ τοῦ λέγοντος πρὸς αὐτόν· ὤμοσεν κύριος καὶ οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται· σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.“) (Hebrews 7:21–quoting a Melchizedek passage from Psalm 110:4–(“יִנָּחֵ֗ם אַתָּֽה־כֹהֵ֥ן לְעֹולָ֑ם עַל־דִּ֝בְרָתִ֗י מַלְכִּי־צֶֽדֶק”). The Hebrew term “לְעֹולָ֑ם” describes the length of time of that priesthood. By translating the phrase “into the age” literally, the reader can understand the semantic range of the phrase, which includes both a reference to the Millennial Kingdom and eternity beyond.

2.19 Christ Appointed Son. From Hebrews:  “For the Law appoints men as high priests who are weak, but the word of the oath, which came after the Law, a Son, made perfect forever (“ὁ νόμος γὰρ ἀνθρώπους καθίστησιν ἀρχιερεῖς ἔχοντας ἀσθένειαν, ὁ λόγος δὲ τῆς ὁρκωμοσίας τῆς μετὰ τὸν νόμον υἱὸν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τετελειωμένον”) (Hebrews 7:28). When the phrase “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) is applied to God, I believe it makes the strongest claim to eternity as a good translation.

2.20 The Word of the Lord. From Peter: “The word of the Lord abides into the age” (“τὸ δὲ ῥῆμα κυρίου μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (1 Peter 1:25–translating Isaiah 40:5–and the word of our God will stand to olam–וּדְבַר־אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יָק֥וּם לְעֹולָֽם”). As with “to the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) applied to God, when the phrase “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) is applied to the word of God, it also make a strong claim to eternity.

2.21 Priesthood. The writer of Hebrews explained: “but Jesus, on the other hand, because He continues forever, holds His priesthood into the age (“ὁ δὲ διὰ τὸ μένειν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἀπαράβατον ἔχει τὴν ἱερωσύνην”) (Hebrews 7:24). When the phrase “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) is applied to God, I believe it makes the strongest claim to eternity as a good translation.

2.22 Doing the Will of God. John wrote that “the one who does the will of God abides into the age” (“ὁ ποιῶν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (1 John 2:17). In 1 John 2, the context there is the world (“ὁ κόσμος”) passing away (“παράγεται”). In that context, the contrast suggests that the phrase “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) refers to a time beyond the passing away of the world. In light of the use of the term passing away (“παράγεται”) in 1 Corinthians 2:67:31, and 1 John 2:8, the passing away has already begun and so a reference to the destruction of the world by fire may not be in view. In 1 John 2, the world is tied to the lusts of the world, indicating a link to the time of evil men, and the shining forth of the light of Jesus Christ (1 John 2:8–remember Daniel 12:3 and the parable of the Wheat and Tares on believers shining in the Millennial Kingdom–Matthew 13:43). Therefore, the translation of  “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) may not refer to eternity here, but to a more definite time.

2.23 The Truth.  John wrote that the truth “will be with us into the age” (“μεθ’ ἡμῶν ἔσται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) (2 John 1:2). As with “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) applied to God, when the phrase “into the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”) is applied to the truth from God, it also makes a strong claim to eternity.

2.24  The Age of His Glory. Peter wrote: “After you have suffered for a little while the God of all grace, Who called you into the age of His glory in Christ, will Himself confirm, strengthen establish you” (“ὁ δὲ θεὸς πάσης χάριτος, ὁ καλέσας ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον αὐτοῦ δόξαν ἐν Χριστῷ ὀλίγον παθόντας αὐτὸς καταρτίσει, στηρίξει, σθενώσει, θεμελιώσει”) (1 Peter 5:10). The phrase “into the age of His glory” (“εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον αὐτοῦ δόξαν”)  seems a clear reference to the glory of the Millennial Reign of Christ, as the saints shine forth in the kingdom of their Father (Matthew 13:43; see also Jesus comes with glory –1 Peter 1:11Luke 21:27). 

2.25 Kingdom Age.  Peter wrote: “For in this way entrance into the age kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ will be abundantly supplied to you” (“οὕτως γὰρ πλουσίως ἐπιχορηγηθήσεται ὑμῖν ἡ εἴσοδος εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον βασιλείαν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ”) (2 Peter 1:11). The phrase “into the age kingdom” refers to entrance of saints into the kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, which is the Millennial Kingdom, which will be abundant, as believers must be all the more diligent to be sure of the their calling and choosing by God (2 Peter 1:10).

 

Section Three

The Phrase “Into the Ages”

3.1 Into the Ages. The phrase “into the ages” (“εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας”), notice the plural of ages, describes a period of time spanning more than one age. 

3.1.1 Reign of Christ into the Ages. Luke wrote: “And He will reign over the house of Jacob into the ages, and His kingdom will have no end.” (“καὶ βασιλεύσει ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰακὼβ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας καὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔσται τέλος.“)  (Luke 1:33). The kingdom of God here has no end, the period of time may be eternal. Therefore, we should take special note that the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God may mean eternity, and certainly a period beyond a single age. 

3.1.2 Blessed into the Ages.

3.1.2.1 Blessed into the Ages. Paul wrote: “For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed into the ages. Amen.” (“οἵτινες μετήλλαξαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ψεύδει καὶ ἐσεβάσθησαν καὶ ἐλάτρευσαν τῇ κτίσει παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα, ὅς ἐστιν εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν”) (Romans 1:25). Another use of the phrase “into the ages” tends to confirm the meaning that eternity may in view, particularly when the phrase references God. 

3.1.2.2 Blessed into the Ages. Paul wrote: “whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed into the ages. Amen” (“εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν”) (Romans 9:5). Paul often adds an amen after his praise. Like other New Testament writers, Paul used the phrase “into the ages” to describe God, and often meant eternity.

3.1.3 Glory to God into the Ages.  Paul ascribed glory to God into the ages (“εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν”) (Romans 11:36). Another use confirming the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God means eternity, or a period of ages beyond the Millennial Age.

3.1.4 Glory to Jesus into the Ages.  Paul ascribed glory to Jesus into the ages: to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be the glory into the ages. Amen. (“μόνῳ σοφῷ θεῷ, διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν”) (Romans 16:27). Another use confirming the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God means eternity, or a period of ages beyond the Millennial Age.

3.1.5 Blessed God and Father to the Ages.  Paul declared that the God and Father of the Lord Jesus is blessed into the ages (“εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας”) (2 Corinthians 11:31). Another use confirming the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God means eternity, or a period of ages beyond the Millennial Age.

3.1.6 Throne of God. Hebrews provides:  But of the Son, “YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS FOREVER AND EVER, AND THE RIGHTEOUS SCEPTER IS THE SCEPTER OF HIS KINGDOM” (“πρὸς δὲ τὸν υἱόν·ὁ θρόνος σου ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας σου“–quoting Psalm 45:6 “כִּסְאֲךָ֣ אֱ֭לֹהִים עֹולָ֣ם וָעֶ֑ד שֵׁ֥בֶט מִ֝ישֹׁ֗ר שֵׁ֣בֶט מַלְכוּתֶֽךָ“) (Hebrews 1:8). The writer of Hebrews translated the single term “עֹולָ֣ם” with the phrase “εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος.” Therefore, we know that the phrase “εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος,” when applied to God, may translate the Hebrew term “עֹולָ֣ם,” even though the plural “עֹֽלָמִ֑ים” and other phrases were available to the Old Testament writers. 

3.1.7 Jesus Christ the Same into the Ages. Hebrews provides:  “Jesus Christ the same yesterday, today and the same one also into the ages” (“Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ἐχθὲς καὶ σήμερον ὁ αὐτὸς καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας”) (Hebrews 13:8). Another use confirming the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God means eternity, or a period of ages beyond the Millennial Age. This verse divides time into three periods. First, yesterday (“ἐχθὲς”) is used in John 4:52 and Acts 17:28 to refer to the day before today. Second, “today” (“σήμερον “) describes the current day. Third, describes the future as “into the ages” (“εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας”). Therefore, the past and present are described here as days, not ages. The writer intends to make the point that time can be viewed by day or by the age, or by combinations of those times. In this case, we have another indication that the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God means eternity, or a period of ages beyond the Millennial Age.

3.1.8 God Our Savior into the all the Ages.  Jude wrote: To the only God our Savior be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all the age and now and into all the ages, amen (“πρὸ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ νῦν καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν.”) (Jude 1:25). This verse provides insight into the division of time. First, Jude wrote about the period “before all the age” (“πρὸ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος”), indicating that one or more ages preceded the present age. The “all” describes the length of the present age, and suggests an expansive period of time. Second, Jude wrote about “now” (“νῦν”). Notice that the implication is that now is part of the present age. Third, Jesus wrote about “into all the ages” (“εἰς πάντας τοὺς αἰῶνας”), referring to all the ages to come. This verse provides great help in understanding time and ages in the New Testament. As above, when the term ages applies to God, it could mean either eternity or a period of time beyond the future age.

3.1.9  Power to God to the Ages. Peter ascribed “To Him the power into the ages, amen” (“αὐτῷ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν.”) (1 Peter 5:11). Another use confirming the phrase “into the ages” when applied to God means eternity, or a period of ages beyond the Millennial Age. Notice the amen, again.

 3.1.10 The Ages Dwellings.  Luke wrote: “They will receive you into the ages dwellings (“δέξωνται ὑμᾶς εἰς τὰς αἰωνίους σκηνάς”) (Luke 16:9). I understand this parable to authorize believers to use unrighteous wealth to spread the Gospel of Jesus Christ so that more people believe and have heavenly residences prepared for them. So, when believers die, the saved people receive them into their heavenly residences. Therefore, I understand the phrase “into the ages dwelling” (“εἰς τὰς αἰωνίους σκηνάς”) to refer to heavenly dwellings that last beyond the present age and into future ages, apparently to eternity. Notice the adjective “ages” (“αἰωνίους”) describing the dwellings. These are dwellings for the ages.

 

Section Four

The Phrase “Into The Ages of the Ages”

4.1 The Ages of the Ages.  The phrase the ages of the ages (“τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”) most often applies to God, but has several other uses as well. I have included some verses with textual variants. When applied to God, it appears to mean eternity, like the phrase above, “into the ages.”

4.2 Glory and Honor.  Paul ascribed honor and glory to God: “to Whom be the glory into the age of the ages. Amen.” (“ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.”)  (Galatians 1:5). The phrase “into the ages of the ages” (“εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”) describes several ages. The plural ages of plural “ages” indicates many ages, probably speaking of eternity, particularly when applied to God. This praise phrase is often completed with Amen.

4.3 Glory Our God and Father. Paul wrote: “Now to our God and Father be the glory into the ages of the ages. Amen.” (“τῷ δὲ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ ἡμῶν ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.”)  (Philippians 4:20). Again, Paul praised our God and Father, ascribing to Him glory into the ages of the ages (“τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”). Notice the Amen, again. Like the other plurals of “ages,” when referring to God, eternity seems to fit the context best.

4.4 The Only God.  Paul wrote: “Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory into the ages of the ages. Amen.” (“Τῷ δὲ βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων, ἀφθάρτῳ ἀοράτῳ μόνῳ θεῷ, τιμὴ καὶ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.”) (1 Timothy 1:17). Notice in interplay with the contrast of Galatians 1:4, “rescue from the present evil age” (“ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ”–age singular describing the present time) with Galatians 1:5, “to whom the glory to the ages of the ages” (“ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”). When Paul contrasted the present age with eternal age, he used the phrase “the ages of the ages,” which always, or almost always, meant eternity in the Old and New Testament usage.

4.5 Glory To God.  Paul wrote:  “The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed, and will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom; to Him be the glory to the ages of the ages. Amen.” (“ῥύσεταί με ὁ κύριος ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου πονηροῦ καὶ σώσει εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐπουράνιον· ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.”)  (2 Timothy 4:18). Like the other plurals of “ages,” when referring to God, eternity seems to fit the context best.

4.6 Glory to Jesus Christ. The writer of Hebrews ascribed glory to Jesus Christ to the ages of the ages (“ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων], ἀμήν.”) (Hebrews 13:21). If the longer reading is original, then the “ages of the ages” refers to the eternity of Jesus Christ. The presence of the well-attested “amen” with the plural “ages” favors (somewhat) the longer reading. 

4.7 Glory and Power to Jesus Christ. Peter ascribed the glory and the dominion to Jesus Christ to the ages of the ages (“ὁ θεὸς διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ᾧ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν”) (1 Peter 4:11). The plural “the ages of the ages” emphasizes the eternal glory and dominion of Jesus Christ.

4.8 Glory and Power to God. John recorded: to God the glory and the dominion to the ages [of the ages] (“αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων]· ἀμήν.”) (Revelation 1:6). This variant appears similar to Hebrews 13:21, above.

4.9 I Am Living. John recorded: “and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive into the ages of the ages, and I have the keys of death and of Hades” (“καὶ ὁ ζῶν, καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾅδου”) (Revelation 1:18). John emphasized the eternal life of Christ using the phrase of “into the ages of the ages”, in keeping with other uses of the plurals of “ages” to describe Jesus and His eternal attributes. In this context, He was dead, but now lives to eternity.

4.10 Worship Him.  John wrote: The twenty-four elders will fall down before Him who sits on the throne, and will worship Him who lives into the ages of the ages, and will cast their crowns before the throne, saying (“πεσοῦνται οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἐνώπιον τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου λέγοντες”) (Revelation 4:10). The plurals of “ages” described the eternal life of God.

4.11  The Living One. John recorded: “And when the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to Him who sits on the throne, to Him who lives into the ages of the ages” (“Καὶ ὅταν δώσουσιν τὰ ζῷα δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ εὐχαριστίαν τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”) (Revelation 4:9). The plurals of “ages” were used to describe the eternal life of God. 

4.12 Blessing,  Honor, Glory, Power. John recorded: “the One seated on the throne and to the Lamb the blessing and the honor and the glory and the dominion to the ages of the ages” (“τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”)  (Revelation 5:13). The plurals of “ages” were used to ascribe eternal blessing and honor and glory and dominion to God the Father and the Lamb.

4.13 The Blessing, the Honor and the Glory and the Dominion. John recorded: “To Him Who created heaven and all the things in it, and the earth and all the things in it, and the sea and all things in it I heard saying: to the One sitting upon the throne and to the Lamb the blessing  and the honor and the glory and the power to the ages of the ages” (“καὶ πᾶν κτίσμα ὃ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντα ἤκουσα λέγοντας·τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας ῶν αἰώνων”) (Revelation 5:13). The plurals of ages were used to describe the eternity of God the Father and the Lamb.

4.14 Blessing, Glory, Wisdom, Thanksgiving, Honor, Power and Strength. John recorded: “to our God be blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and strength to the ages of the ages.” (“ἀμήν, ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ σοφία καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ἀμήν”) (Revelation 7:12). The plurals of ages were used to describe the eternity of God.

4.15 He Who Lives.  John wrote: “And swore by Him who lives to the ages of the ages, WHO CREATED HEAVEN AND THE THINGS IN IT, AND THE EARTH AND THE THINGS IN IT, AND THE SEA AND THE THINGS IN IT, that there will be delay no longer” (“καὶ ὤμοσεν ἐν τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ὃς ἔκτισεν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ, ὅτι χρόνος οὐκέτι ἔσται”) (Revelation 10:6). The plurals of ages were used to describe the eternal life of God.

4.16 Christ Will Reign. John wrote:  “Then the seventh angel sounded; and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, ‘The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign to the ages of the ages’.”   (“Καὶ ὁ ἕβδομος ἄγγελος ἐσάλπισεν· καὶ ἐγένοντο φωναὶ μεγάλαι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ λέγοντες· ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κόσμου τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν  καὶ τοῦ χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ, καὶ βασιλεύσει εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.”) (Revelation 11:15). The plurals of “ages” were used to describe the eternity of the reign of Jesus Christ.

4.17 God Who Lives.  John wrote: “Then one of the four living creatures gave to the seven angels seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God, who lives to the ages of the ages” (“καὶ ἓν ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων ἔδωκεν τοῖς ἑπτὰ ἀγγέλοις ἑπτὰ φιάλας χρυσᾶς γεμούσας τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”) (Revelation 15:7). The plurals were used to describe the eternal life of God.

4.18 Other References. The phrase “ages of the ages” also applied to other things.

4.19 The Smoke of Their Torment. John recorded:  “And the smoke of their torment goes up into the ages of the ages; they have no rest day and night, those who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name.”(“καὶ ὁ καπνὸς τοῦ βασανισμοῦ αὐτῶν εἰς αἰῶνας αἰώνων ἀναβαίνει, καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἀνάπαυσιν ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς οἱ προσκυνοῦντες τὸ θηρίον καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ καὶ εἴ τις λαμβάνει τὸ χάραγμα τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ”)  (Revelation 14:11). The plurals of “ages” were used to describe the eternal torment of the wicked, and the phrase “no rest day and night” speaks of the continual, daily suffering.

4.20 Revelation 19:3. John recorded: “Babylon, whose smoke ascends into the ages of the ages” (“Καὶ δεύτερον εἴρηκαν· ἁλληλουϊά· καὶ ὁ καπνὸς αὐτῆς ἀναβαίνει εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”) (Revelation 19:3). The plural of “ages” emphasized the eternal smoke ascending, suggesting something beyond the physical Babylon.

4.21 Beast and False Prophet Tormented. John recorded: “And the devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are also; and they will be tormented day and night to the ages of the ages.” (“καὶ ὁ διάβολος ὁ πλανῶν αὐτοὺς ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ θείου ὅπου καὶ τὸ θηρίον καὶ ὁ ψευδοπροφήτης, καὶ βασανισθήσονται ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.”) (Revelation 20:10). Like Revelation 14:11, the plurals of “ages” were used to describe the eternal torment of the wicked, and the phrase “no rest day and night” speaks of the continual, daily suffering.

4.22 Saints Reign.  John recorded: “And there will no longer be any night; and they will not have need of the light of a lamp nor the light of the sun, because the Lord God will illumine them; and they will reign to the ages of the ages.” Therefore, we know that the saints reign in the New Jerusalem as long as God lives into the future, into the ages of the ages (“καὶ νὺξ οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν χρείαν φωτὸς λύχνου καὶ φωτὸς ἡλίου, ὅτι κύριος ὁ θεὸς φωτίσει ἐπ’ αὐτούς, καὶ βασιλεύσουσιν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων”) (Revelation 22:5). The plurals were used to describe the eternal life of God.

4.23 Summary of the Use of Ages of the Ages. The phrase “ages of the ages” generally refers to God, and describes eternal praise to God and the glory of His eternal attributes. Therefore, the other uses of same term “the ages of the ages” often means eternity as well, which fits the context and the limited uses of the phrase “the ages of the ages.” Furthermore, the phrases “into the ages of the ages” proves that the wicked suffer eternally and the righteous reign with God for eternity. Finally, the phrase “the ages of the ages” emphasized the eternality of God and His attributes and often refers to His praise and worship.

 

Section Five

The Age of Ages

5.1 Age of Ages. Paul wrote: “to Him the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all the generations of the age of the ages, amen.” (“αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς πάσας τὰς γενεὰς τοῦ αἰῶνος τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν”) (Ephesians 3:21). Paul used the preposition (“εἰς”) which he also used in the phrase “into the ages of the ages” to describe the period “to all the generations of the age of the ages.” In this case, the generations extend into a prolonged future, perhaps even eternity, but the combination of the church and the generations seems to focus upon a definite period of time, the Millennial Kingdom.

5.2 Your Throne. Hebrew 1:8 quotes Psalm 45:6:  “But of the Son, ‘YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS INTO THE AGE OF THE AGES THE RIGHTEOUS SCEPTER IS THE SCEPTER OF HIS KINGDOM.’” (“πρὸς δὲ τὸν υἱόν· ὁ θρόνος σου ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος , καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας σου.) (Hebrews 1:8–quoting Psalm 45:6– כִּסְאֲךָ֣ אֱ֭לֹהִים עֹולָ֣ם וָעֶ֑ד שֵׁ֥בֶט מִ֝ישֹׁ֗ר שֵׁ֣בֶט מַלְכוּתֶֽךָ). Notice the phrase “עֹולָ֣ם וָעֶ֑ד” indicating an emphasis upon “age” or a time beyond “age.” That phrase “עֹולָ֣ם וָעֶ֑ד” occurs only in Psalm 21:445:748:1452:989:36104:5, and in Jeremiah 7:7 and 25:5. In Psalm 45:648:1452:9, the phrase describes God. In Psalm 52:9, the phrase described David’s trust in God. In Psalm 89:36, the throne of David will be established like the moon, and the witness in the sky is faithful (this reference may be more limited than eternity, and emphasize the Millennial Reign). In Jeremiah 7:7, he wrote:  “then I will let you dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers from age and unto age.” (“וְשִׁכַּנְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּמָּקֹ֣ום הַזֶּ֔ה בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לַאֲבֹֽותֵיכֶ֑ם לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם וְעַד־עֹולָֽם”). In Jeremiah 7:7, the phrase described land on earth given to the fathers “לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם וְעַד־עֹולָֽם” and means a period of time extending no longer than the life of the earth. Furthermore, this verse provides a clue that the phrase “from age” (“לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם”) and “and unto age” (“עַד־עֹולָֽם”) both described specific periods of time, and so do not always mean eternity; both of those phrases described a period of time that starts and finishes. In Jeremiah 25:5 and Jeremiah 7:7, Jeremiah used a unique phrase (found only in Jeremiah 7:7 and 25:5) to described time: “from age” (“לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם”) and “and unto age” (“לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם”). In Jeremiah 25:5, Jeremiah wrote: “saying, ‘Turn now everyone from his evil way and from the evil of your deeds, and dwell on the land which the LORD has given to you and your forefathers from age and unto age;” (“לֵאמֹ֗ר שֽׁוּבוּ־נָ֞א אִ֣ישׁ מִדַּרְכֹּ֤ו הָֽרָעָה֙ וּמֵרֹ֣עַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶ֔ם וּשְׁבוּ֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם וְלַאֲבֹֽותֵיכֶ֑ם לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם וְעַד־עֹולָֽם”). Like Jeremiah 7:7, in Jeremiah 25:5 the phrases “from age” (“לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם”) and “and unto age” (“לְמִן־עֹולָ֖ם”) described the period of time the Lord gave Israel the land which they should inhabit. Again, the period of time may mean eternity, but the land itself will certainly be destroyed by fire in the future (2 Peter 3:10). In fact, the people of Israel will not inherit that land in perpetuity, because of the destruction of the earth with fire (2 Peter 3:10).

 

Section Six

Into Age Life

6.1  Righteous to Age Life.  Matthew wrote: “These will go away into age punishment, but the righteous to age life.” (“ἀπελεύσονται οὗτοι εἰς κόλασιν αἰώνιον, οἱ δὲ δίκαιοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (Matthew 25:46). This verse provides a nice explanation of the adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) when used with the preposition (“εἰς”) and a noun.  The contrast here involves the movement into age punishment for the wicked versus the movement into age life for the righteous. Compare John 5:24-29 with resurrection to judgment opposed to the resurrection of life. The believers do not go to a judgment regarding life, because they already have life at the moment of salvation (John 5:24). The punishment age concerns time in Hades awaiting the final judgment at the Great White Throne of Revelation 20:11ff. The contrast is not between punishment and eternal life, but age punishment and age life. Therefore, the age life in view here is Jesus sitting upon HIs Millennial Throne on earth and separating the sheep from the goats. Jesus separates the sheep from the goats, sending the wicked (goats) to age punishment in Hades and the righteous (the sheep) to age life in the Millennial Kingdom where they will shine forth. Neither Hades nor the Millennial Kingdom is the final destination for either the wicked or the righteous. The wicked will end up in the Lake of Fire and the Righteous will end up in the New Jerusalem. As a side note, when the adjective “age” appears in the predicative position with “life,” I have chosen to translate the phrase as simply age life, instead of age is life.

6.2 Well of Water. John wrote: “But whoever drinks of the water that I will give him shall never thirst; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up into age life” (“ὃς δ’ ἂν πίῃ ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος οὗ ἐγὼ δώσω αὐτῷ, οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσω αὐτῷ γενήσεται ἐν αὐτῷ πηγὴ ὕδατος ἁλλομένου εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (John 4:14). As Jesus spoke to the Samaritan woman at the well, He offered her the water which would become a well springing up to age life. The age life in view here seems to fit best with age life in the Millennial Kingdom because of the other uses of the phrase “age life” and the immediate context. In John 4, the woman was thinking about the coming Messiah, and Jesus identified Himself as the Messiah of Israel, and the Messiah for Samaria (John 4:25-26).

6.3 Gathering Fruit. John states:  “Already he who reaps is receiving wages and is gathering fruit for age life (“ὁ θερίζων μισθὸν λαμβάνει καὶ συνάγει καρπὸν εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”)  (John 4:36). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). When the disciples returned from the City of Sychar (the home of the woman at the well), Jesus explained the reapers are gathering fruit for age life. In light of the promise of age life to the woman at the well, it seems that age life means life into the age of the Millennial Kingdom.

6.4 Food Which Abides. John wrote: “Do not work for the food which destroys (see the Afterlife on destruction), but for the food which abides into age life, which the Son of Man will give to you, for on Him the Father, God, has set His seal” (“ἐργάζεσθε μὴ τὴν βρῶσιν τὴν ἀπολλυμένην ἀλλὰ τὴν βρῶσιν τὴν μένουσαν εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, ἣν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑμῖν δώσει· τοῦτον γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ἐσφράγισεν ὁ θεός”) (John 6:27).  The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). In the Bread of Life Discourse in John 6, Jesus described Himself as the Bread of Life. The crowds gathered are around Jesus in this passage not because of His signs, but because they ate the physical bread He gave to them (John 6:26). Jesus taught that people should not work for the food which destroys, but for the food which abides to age life. In John 6:39-40, Jesus explained that age life meant that Jesus would raise believers up on the last day, and He would lose not even one of them. Therefore, Jesus spoke about believers in Him having “age life” and Jesus will raise them up on the last day (“πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐγὼ [ἐν] τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳin) (John 6:40). Therefore, the link to the resurrection and age life becomes explicit in John 6:40. The saints are raised up into life in the age of the Millennial Kingdom.

6.5 Age Life. He who loves his soul loses it, and he who hates his soul in this world will keep it into life age (“ὁ φιλῶν τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἀπολλύει αὐτήν, καὶ ὁ μισῶν τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον φυλάξει αὐτήν”)  (John 12:25). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”).

6.6  Hates His Life. John wrote: “He who loves his soul will lose it, and he who hates his soul in this world will keep it to age life” (“ὁ φιλῶν τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἀπολλύει αὐτήν, καὶ ὁ μισῶν τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον φυλάξει αὐτήν”) (John 12:25). In John 12, Jesus spoke about age life in the context of the hour for the Son of Man to be glorified, by dying like a grain of wheat falling into the ground and then bringing forth much fruit (John 12:24). Jesus then spoke about serving Him and being with Him. Jesus also spoke about the coming judgment and saving the world (John 12:47-48). Again, the Millennial Kingdom seems in view, although in this context it is not as clear.

6.7 Appointed. Luke wrote: “When the Gentiles heard this, they rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord; and as many as had been appointed to age life believed” (“Ἀκούοντα δὲ τὰ ἔθνη ἔχαιρον καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν λόγον τοῦ κυρίου καὶ ἐπίστευσαν ὅσοι ἦσαν τεταγμένοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”). (Acts 13:48). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). As Paul preached in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch, many Jews there rejected the Gospel of Jesus Christ and Paul moved on to the Gentiles. As Paul preached to the Gentiles, as many as were appointed to age life believed. In this context, I did not find a clear indication that “age life” referred to eternal life or life into the Millennial Age. Therefore, I submit that “age life” means life into the Millennium because of the predominant usage elsewhere.

6.8 Grace.  Paul wrote: “So that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to age life through Jesus Christ our Lord” (“ἵνα ὥσπερ ἐβασίλευσεν ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ, οὕτως καὶ ἡ χάρις βασιλεύσῃ διὰ δικαιοσύνης εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν”) (Romans 5:21). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”).  In this context, Paul spoke of sin reigning in death. In contrast, grace would reign through righteousness into age life through Jesus Christ. Notice the contrast between the two reigns. Although not clear, this contrast fits perfectly with age life referring to the Millennial Kingdom, when the earth is restored under the Millennial Reign of Christ and believers live resurrected in that kingdom with Jesus.

6.9 Believe. Paul wrote: “Jesus Christ might demonstrate HIs perfect patience as an example for those who would believe in Him into age life” (“ἐνδείξηται Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς τὴν ἅπασαν μακροθυμίαν πρὸς ὑποτύπωσιν τῶν μελλόντων πιστεύειν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (1 Timothy 1:16). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). In 1 Timothy 1:17, Paul described the King, in the context of reigning and dominion. Although not clear, the context lends some support for into age life meaning into the Millennial Kingdom.

6.10 Keep Yourselves.  Keep yourselves in love of God, waiting the mercy of the Lord of us Jesus Christ into age life” (“ἑαυτοὺς ἐν ἀγάπῃ θεοῦ τηρήσατε προσδεχόμενοι τὸ ἔλεος τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (Jude 1:21). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Notice here that the saints are waiting to receive “age life,” indicating they do not have it yet. This future reference supports life into the Millennial Kingdom, when He reigns as Lord and King.

 

Section Seven

From the Age and Ages

7.1 Bring to Light.  Paul wrote: “and to bring to light what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God who created all things (“καὶ φωτίσαι [πάντας] τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ ἀποκεκρυμμένου ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων ἐν τῷ θεῷ τῷ τὰ πάντα κτίσαντι”–notice preposition as moving away from being hidden) (Ephesians 3:9). In this context, The term “from the ages” (“ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων”) clearly does not refer to eternity, but to the period of time before God revealed the administration of the mystery which has been hidden in God who created all things. Therefore, the phrase “from the ages” refers to a specific period of past time.

7.2 Hidden.  Paul wrote: “the mystery which has been hidden from the ages and generations, but has now been manifested to His saints” (“τὸ μυστήριον τὸ ἀποκεκρυμμένον ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν γενεῶν–νῦν δὲ ἐφανερώθη τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ”–notice preposition as moving away from being hidden) (Colossians 1:26). In this verse, we see that the mystery has been hidden both “from both the ages” and “from the generations.”  Some people argue that certain powers rule over each age. In Ephesians 2:1-2, Paul wrote: “And you were dead in your trespasses and sins,  in which you formerly walked according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience” (“Καὶ ὑμᾶς ὄντας νεκροὺς τοῖς παραπτώμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ὑμῶν, ἐν αἷς ποτε περιεπατήσατε κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, κατὰ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ νῦν ἐνεργοῦντος ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας“). Notice the phrase “according to the age of this world” and its relationship to “and according to the ruler of the authority of the air” (“κατὰ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος“). The ruler of this world is the devil (Matthew 9:34–ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια; John 12:31–νῦν κρίσις ἐστὶν τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, νῦν ὁ ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἐκβληθήσεται ἔξω·; John 16:11–περὶ δὲ κρίσεως, ὅτι ὁ ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου κέκριται). The devil, as the god of this age, has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God (“ἐν οἷς ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἐτύφλωσεν τὰ νοήματα τῶν ἀπίστων εἰς τὸ μὴ αὐγάσαι τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς δόξης τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ”) (2 Corinthians 4:4).  In 1 Corinthians 2:6, Paul wrote: “Yet we do speak wisdom among those who are mature; a wisdom, however, not of this age nor of the rulers of this age, who are passing away” (“Σοφίαν δὲ λαλοῦμεν ἐν τοῖς τελείοις, σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου οὐδὲ τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου τῶν καταργουμένων”). Paul contrasted God’s wisdom in a mystery with wisdom not of this age, nor of the rulers of this age (suggesting again the work of the devil and his minions). Therefore, with that background of a spiritual ruler of the world being the devil, we may understand that the “age of this world” and the “ruler of this world” go hand in hand. Therefore, the phrase “hidden from the ages” refers to the ages ruled by the devil and his slaves. So, with the next phrase focused upon “from the generations,” we know that phrase has strong Old Testament roots and describes human generations (e.g., Genesis 9:2Exodus 16:331 Chronicles 16:15). 

7.3 Age of His Prophets.  Luke observed: “As He spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets from age of His prophets” (“καθὼς ἐλάλησεν διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων ἀπ’ αἰῶνος προφητῶν αὐτοῦ–notice preposition as moving away from the prophets) (Luke 1:70). In this verse, Paul made a more specific reference to the age of His prophets.

7.4 Holy Ones and Age of Prophets. “whom heaven must receive until period of restoration of all things about which God spoke by the mouth of the holy ones from age of His prophets” (“ὃν δεῖ οὐρανὸν μὲν δέξασθαι ἄχρι χρόνων ἀποκαταστάσεως πάντων ὧν ἐλάλησεν ὁ θεὸς διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων ἀπ’ αἰῶνος αὐτοῦ προφητῶν–notice the preposition as moving away from the prophets) (Acts 3:21). Notice the phrase “the age of restoration of all things” (“ἄχρι χρόνων ἀποκαταστάσεως πάντων”), describing a future time when all things would be restored. Paul used the word “χρόνων” to describe that time, not “age.” Paul then wrote that God has used the mouths of the saints from the age of the prophets to describe the time of restoration. It appears that time of restoration of all things occurs during the Millennial Reign (Isaiah 11:7Isaiah 65:25; see also Matthew 17:11 and Romans 8:18-22).

7.5 Known from Age. Luke wrote: “SAYS THE LORD, WHO MAKES THESE THINGS KNOWN FROM AGE” (“λέγει κύριος ποιῶν ταῦτα γνωστὰ ἀπ’ αἰῶνος“) (Acts 15:18). James was speaking at the Jerusalem Council about the rebuilding of the tabernacle of David which had fallen, so that the rest of mankind may seek the Lord and all the Gentiles who are called by His name–quoting Amos 9:12 (“לְמַ֨עַן יִֽירְשׁ֜וּ אֶת־שְׁאֵרִ֤ית אֱדֹום֙ וְכָל־הַגֹּויִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָ֥א שְׁמִ֖י עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה עֹ֥שֶׂה זֹּֽאת“). When coupled with the age of His prophets above, we know how God made known the restoration of all things known through the Old Testament prophets like Amos and Isaiah, and He did so from the age of those prophets.

 

Section Eight

Before the Age

8.1 Before the Ages. Paul wrote: “but we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, the hidden which God predestined before the ages to our glory” (“ἀλλὰ λαλοῦμεν θεοῦ σοφίαν ἐν μυστηρίῳ τὴν ἀποκεκρυμμένην, ἣν προώρισεν ὁ θεὸς πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς δόξαν ἡμῶν”) (1 Corinthians 2:7). As Paul developed the revelation of God’s wisdom in a mystery, he explained that he spoke that wisdom to the mature. He also said that wisdom was not of this age, nor the rulers of this age, who are passing away. Therefore, the phrase “before the ages” means God had already fixed the time of revelation of the mystery before the ages. In 1 Corinthians, Paul spoke of the rulers of this age and the wisdom not of this age. So Paul means that God predestined the revelation of the mystery at the time of Paul, but God made the promise of that revelation date before the present age with its rulers, and before other ages. The scope of the term “ages” here certainly includes the present age, and at least on more age, but the scope cannot be certain as to starting point of the promise based only on this verse. 

8.2  Before Time of Age. Paul wrote: “in the hope of age life, which God, who cannot lie, promised before times of ages” (“ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι ζωῆς αἰωνίου, ἣν ἐπηγγείλατο ὁ ἀψευδὴς θεὸς πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων”) (Titus 1:2). Paul wrote about the hope of “age time.” The adjective “age” (” αἰωνίου”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωῆς”). Paul also told us that people do not hope for things already seen (Romans 8:24). Therefore, Paul was speaking of age life as something yet future, and hoped for as yet unseen which argues strongly against present eternal life. Regarding age life, Paul wrote that God promised “age life” before “ages of times” (“πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων”), referring to the passage of time over the course of multiples ages. The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “time” (“χρόνων”). Again, the starting point of that promise cannot be pinpointed in time, except that it was before more than one age ago, and the times associated with those ages. It seems likely the prophets, in their age, revealed such promises, but the date God made the promise may not be the date of revelation.

 

Section Nine

The Now Age

9.1 Conformed. Paul wrote: “And do not be conformed to this age, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect.” (“καὶ μὴ συσχηματίζεσθε τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, ἀλλὰ μεταμορφοῦσθε τῇ ἀνακαινώσει τοῦ νοὸς εἰς τὸ δοκιμάζειν ὑμᾶς τί τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ εὐάρεστον καὶ τέλειον.”)  (Romans 12:2). Paul revealed the command of God not to be conformed to this age. Therefore, we know that saints may be conformed to the age they live in, but God commands them to avoid such conformity because of the evils of the present age, and its evil rulers. Paul also revealed the means for avoiding the conformity through the transformation and renewing of your mind.

9.2 The Rich.  Paul wrote: “instruct those who are rich in this now age not to be conceited or to fix their hope on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who richly supplies us with all things to enjoy.”  (“Τοῖς πλουσίοις ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι παράγγελλε μὴ ὑψηλοφρονεῖν μηδὲ ἠλπικέναι ἐπὶ πλούτου ἀδηλότητι ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ θεῷ τῷ παρέχοντι ἡμῖν πάντα πλουσίως εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν”)  (1 Timothy 6:17). Notice that the “now” (“νῦν”) appears as an adverb here, but functions as an adjective here modifying “age” (“αἰῶνι”). Paul spoke about living “in the now age” (“ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι”), indicating that he viewed the world as a series of ages: past ages, now age, and future ages. Each age has its own characteristics. For example the now age has rich people, but they must not fix their hope upon such riches, but on God, who provides the riches for present enjoyment. Paul also revealed we “in” (“ἐν”) the now age, and look forward to future ages, which are not in the now age. Therefore, we know ages follow one another, and things change with each age, according to that particular age’s characteristics and God’s sovereign plans for each age.

9.3 The Now Age.  Paul wrote: “for Demas, having loved this present age, has deserted me and gone to Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia” (“Δημᾶς γάρ με ἐγκατέλιπεν ἀγαπήσας τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα καὶ ἐπορεύθη εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην, Κρήσκης εἰς Γαλατίαν, Τίτος εἰς Δαλματίαν”)  (2 Timothy 4:10). The phrase “the now age” describes the current age, with its rulers and temptations. Paul certainly implied that loving this now age caused Demas to stumble. Paul described the present age as evil (Galatians 1:4).

9.4 To Live. Paul wrote: “instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the now age” (“παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς, ἵνα ἀρνησάμενοι τὴν ἀσέβειαν καὶ τὰς κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας σωφρόνως καὶ δικαίως καὶ εὐσεβῶς ζήσωμεν ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι,”)  (Titus 2:12). Notice that the “now” (“νῦν”) appears as an adverb here, but functions as an adjective here modifying “age” (“αἰῶνι”). Paul revealed that living “in the now age” (“ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι”) means that believers need instruction about righteous living in the now age.

9.5 Wise in This Age. Paul wrote: “Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you thinks that he is wise in this age, he must become foolish, so that he may become wise.” (“Μηδεὶς ἑαυτὸν ἐξαπατάτω· εἴ τις δοκεῖ σοφὸς εἶναι ἐν ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, μωρὸς γενέσθω, ἵνα γένηται σοφός.”) (1 Corinthians 3:18). Paul continued his warnings about the life in this now age with a command: Let no man deceive himself. In this case, self-deception occurs when a man thinks himself wise in this age. The remedy is to become foolish according to this age, so that he may become wise with God’s wisdom, which comes down from above, and is not the wisdom of this world, which is earthly, natural and demonic (James 3:15).

 

Section Ten

The Coming Age

10.1 The Coming Age. The New Testament provided insight into “the age to come” using various Greek phrases. They also expand our understanding of the terms “age” and “ages” in the New Testament.

10.2 Blasphemy against The Holy Spirit. Matthew wrote: “Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, either in this age or in the age to come” (“καὶ ὃς ἐὰν εἴπῃ λόγον κατὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ· ὃς δ’ ἂν εἴπῃ κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου, οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ οὔτε ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι οὔτε ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι”) (Matthew 12:32). Jesus warned that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit shall not be forgiven in the present age nor in the age to come (“οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ οὔτε ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι οὔτε ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι “) (Matthew 12:32). The context indicates that attributing the works of Jesus to the devil means people reject Jesus and the work of the Holy Spirit in drawing people to Jesus as Savior. Therefore, when anyone says Jesus works for the devil, they have committed the sin of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Such sin without repentance and salvation cannot be forgiven in this the age (“ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι”) nor in the coming age (“οὔτε ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι”). 

10.3  Everyone.  Matthew wrote: “And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or farms for My name’s sake, will receive many times as much, and will inherit age life.” (“καὶ πᾶς ὅστις ἀφῆκεν οἰκίας ἢ ἀδελφοὺς ἢ ἀδελφὰς ἢ πατέρα ἢ μητέρα ἢ τέκνα ἢ ἀγροὺς ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόματός μου, ἑκατονταπλασίονα λήμψεται καὶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσει“)  (Matthew 19:29). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). In Matthew 19:28,  we know that when Jesus will sit on His glorious throne, the disciples will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. This judgment will take place in the regeneration (“ἐν τῇ παλιγγενεσίᾳ’–see Titus 3:5 for the washing of regeneration, which is a requirement to enter age life. Believers shall receive their inheritance of age life and shall simultaneously age life in the Millennial Kingdom. Because age life will be received in the future age, it does not seem to fit the meaning of eternal life now.

10.4 Hundred Times.  Mark wrote: “but that he will receive a hundred times as much now in the present age, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and farms, along with persecutions; and in the age to come, age life” (“ἐὰν μὴ λάβῃ ἑκατονταπλασίονα νῦν ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ οἰκίας καὶ ἀδελφοὺς καὶ ἀδελφὰς καὶ μητέρας καὶ τέκνα καὶ ἀγροὺς μετὰ διωγμῶν, καὶ ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (Mark 10:30). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Like Matthew, Mark recorded promises of reward (a hundred times as much) and persecutions in the present age, but also age life, refencing life in the age to come. Because age life will be received in the future age, it does not seem to fit the meaning of eternal life now.

10.5  Age Life. Luke wrote: “Who will not receive many times as much at this time and in the age to come, age life?”  (“ὃς οὐχὶ μὴ [ἀπο]λάβῃ πολλαπλασίονα ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζωὴν αἰώνιον;”) (Luke 18:30). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Like the other synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), Luke recorded the promise of inheriting age life, which Matthew and Mark specify as life in the coming age.

10.6 Worthy. Luke wrote: “Jesus said to them, ‘The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage’ “ (“καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου γαμοῦσιν καὶ γαμίσκονται, οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται”) (Luke 20:34-35). Jesus explained that the sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but the ones considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. Notice “that age” refers to the time of resurrection, meaning a future age.

10.7 Supremely Exalted Jesus. Paul wrote: “which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenliesfar above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come.” (“Ἣν ἐνήργησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ ἐγείρας αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν καὶ καθίσας ἐν δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως καὶ κυριότητος καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου, οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι·”)  (Ephesians 1:20-21). Paul described God’s extreme power demonstrated by raising Christ from the dead and seating Him at His right hand in the heavenlies. Therefore, Christ was exalted in the present age above all rule and authority and power and lordships and all names which are named, and remains so exalted into the coming age. The continuity of Christ’s exaltation remains the same, which many other things change in the coming age, with all earthly rule, authority and power and lordship changed on earth in the coming age.

10.8 Tasted the Word and Powers. Hebrews provides: “For in the case of those who have once been enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift and have been made partakers of the Holy Spirit,  and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come” (“Ἀδύνατον γὰρ τοὺς ἅπαξ φωτισθέντας, γευσαμένους τε τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς ἐπουρανίου καὶ μετόχους γενηθέντας πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ καλὸν γευσαμένους θεοῦ ῥῆμα δυνάμεις τε μέλλοντος αἰῶνος”) (Hebrews 6:5). In this passage, some people have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come. Therefore we know that the coming age will be characterized by the active power of the word of God in the lives of saints, but that same power is at work in the lives of believers today, and some unbelievers also receive a taste of such powers today (see Hebrews 6). No doubt believers have eternal life because passages like Revelation 22:5 describe believers as shining in the New Jerusalem for the ages of the ages, just like God has life to the ages of the ages.

 

 

Section Eleven

Out of the Age and Ages

11.1 Out of the Age. John wrote: “Out of the age not has been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a person born blind” (“ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος οὐκ ἠκούσθη ὅτι ἠνέῳξέν τις ὀφθαλμοὺς τυφλοῦ γεγεννημένου”) (John 9:32). When Jesus healed a man born blind, people admitted that “out of the age” (“ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος “) it has not been heard of such a healing of a man born blind. Therefore, we know that the phrase “out of the age” refers to all the ages, including the present age, when people lived on earth.

11.2 Out of This Present Evil Age.  Paul wrote: “who gave Himself for our sins so that He might rescue us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, to whom be the glory forevermore. Amen.” (“τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν, ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν”)  (Galatians 1:4). Notice God characterized the present age as evil. Paul selected the phrase: “the present evil.”  The term “ἐνεστῶτος”  describes the present age (see Romans 8:38 and Colossians 3:22 where Paul spoke of present things). This stands in contrast to the now age, referring not to things, but to the now age itself. So, when Paul said “now evil age,” he was focusing upon the evil things in the now age. God the Father did not remove saints from this physical age, but transferred the saints out of the dominion of the evil one and into the kingdom of His beloved Son (Colossians 1:13-14).

 

Section Twelve

Into the Day Age

12.1 Day of Age.  Peter wrote: “but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To Him the glory, both now and into the day of age. Amen.” (“αὐξάνετε δὲ ἐν χάριτι καὶ γνώσει τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ νῦν καὶ εἰς ἡμέραν αἰῶνος”) (2 Peter 3:18).  Peter described the present age as “now” and then described the future as “into the day age.” The term “day” appears frequently on the prophetic calendar of God, and frequently refers to the day of the Millennial Reign of Christ (e.g. Jeremiah 46:10Ezekiel 29:2130:3Joel 2:313:14Amos 5:8Obadiah 1:15Zechariah 14:31 Corinthians 5:51 Thessalonians 5:2). In this context, the day age seems to refer to the Millennial Reign of Christ.

 

Section Thirteen

 Age Life

13.1 Translations. Many translations equate the term “ζωὴν αἰώνιον” with eternal life. In some verses they translate “αἰώνιον” as age, but then say it means eternal when applied to life. As you read the verses below, ask yourself if the context suggests eternity, or is the promise more about a specific age and life therein. I am not suggesting saints do not have eternal life, for all saints surely do. Likewise, the unsaved wicked suffer for eternity. I am also not denying that a single word may have a broad semantic range, but context must decide the meaning. The grammar also makes a difference here. The term “ζωὴν” is a noun and the term “αἰώνιον” is an adjective. Therefore, the adjective “age” describes the noun “life.”

13.2  A Man Ran. Mark wrote: “As He was setting out on a journey, a man ran up to Him and knelt before Him, and asked Him, “Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit age life?” (“Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ εἰς ὁδὸν προσδραμὼν εἷς καὶ γονυπετήσας αὐτὸν ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν· διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω”) (Mark 10:17). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). In this case, the man asked about doing future works to inherit age life in the future. This term “inherit” meant to receive at the death of something, referring to being a beneficiary of some bequest. In this context, the man wanted to know how he “may inherit” (“κληρονομήσω”–future active indicative–) age life (“ζωὴν αἰώνιον”). The man wanted to know what he must do in the future (“ποιήσω”–aorist participle) so that in the future he would inherit age life (see 1 Corinthians  6:9 and Galatians 5:21 on the saints inheriting the kingdom of God). Jesus also spoke of doing things now so one would be considered worthy to have life in the age to come, and be resurrected to live in that age in the Kingdom of God (Luke 20:35; Mathew 22:8). Therefore, the idea of inheriting age life connected with the concept of resurrection to life seems to indicate the Millennial Kingdom is in view, just as Jesus discussed the Kingdom of God in the immediate context (Mark 10:23-31), with an emphasis upon receiving an inheritance both now and in the age to come, age life (Mark 10:30). Therefore, eternal life does not fit the context very well here, but the concept of life in the coming age and resurrection to life fits very well (John 5:29).

13.3  Ruler.  Luke wrote: “A ruler questioned Him, saying, ‘Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit age life?’ ” (“Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων λέγων· διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω”) ( Luke 18:18). This passage appears parallel to Mark 10:17. See the remarks above about Mark 10:17

13.4  Do To Inherit. Luke wrote: “And behold a certain lawyer stood up and tempted Him, saying, ‘Teacher, what shall I do to inherit age life?’ ” (“Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν λέγων· διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω”) (Luke 10:25). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Just as the ruler questioned Jesus about inheriting age life, so also a lawyer. When the lawyer said he had kept the commandments and questioned who was his neighbor, Jesus told the lawyer the story of the Good Samaritan. In light of the other passages described above about inheriting age life in the kingdom of God, translating the phrase here as eternal life does not seem as accurate as age life, referring to the Millennial Kingdom in the next age.

13.5 I Give. John wrote: ” and I give age life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of My hand” (“κἀγὼ δίδωμι αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα καὶ οὐχ ἁρπάσει τις αὐτὰ ἐκ τῆς χειρός μου”) (John 10:28). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Jesus said that He gives age life to His sheep and they will not be destroyed. Because of the verses above dealing with age life, it seems that Jesus promised here that He would shepherd His flock through the present age and then they would be safe in the Millennial Kingdom, because they have age life and both Jesus and His Father protect them so that they reach the Millennial Kingdom. Compare the use of “ἁρπάσει” here with the devil plucking the gospel out of the people who only hear the Gospel of Jesus Christ (see The Kingdom of Heaven Suffers Violence), but do not understand it or believe it (Luke 16:16) and with Jesus coming to plucking believers out of the world (1 Thessalonians 4:17).

13.6 I Know. John wrote: “I know that His command is age life (“καὶ οἶδα ὅτι ἡ ἐντολὴ αὐτοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιός ἐστιν”) (John 12:50). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴ”). In some cases, the phrase eternal life makes a nice sounding translation of “age life.” In this context, however, Jesus has been speaking of the last day and being judged by the words Jesus spoke. Therefore, in the context of judgment and the last day, the context favors the translation “age life,” meaning life in the Millennial Kingdom, when people will be judged about entering the Millennial Kingdom.

13.7 Authority. John wrote: “You gave Him authority over all flesh, that to all whom You have given Him, He may give to them age life” (“καθὼς ἔδωκας αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαν πάσης σαρκός, ἵνα πᾶν ὃ δέδωκας αὐτῷ δώσῃ αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (John 17:2). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Jesus said the Father gave Him authority over all flesh, and so to all the ones given to Him by the Father, He may give them age life. In this context, age life refers to the future time when they will be with Jesus in the Millennial Kingdom, although this passage emphasizes Jesus’ work on earth concluding, but praying that the Father will continue to keep them from the evil one, while they remain in the world, but not of the world. Jesus did emphasize that He has the authority to give them age life, which apparently remained future, as signified by the verb “He may give” (“δώσῃ”–aorist active subjunctive) in contrast to the action of the Father who gave (“ἔδωκας”–aorist active indicative) them to the Son and the action of the Father having given them to the Son (“δέδωκας”–perfect active indicative). Although the subjunctive mood is not dispositive here, it suggests a potential event, in contrast to the completed acts described with the aorist active and perfect active verbs.

13.8 Age Life Defined. John wrote: “This is the age life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ Whom you have sent” (“αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ αἰώνιος ζωὴ ἵνα γινώσκωσιν σὲ τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεὸν καὶ ὃν ἀπέστειλας Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν”) (John 17:3). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴ”). Jesus spoke about the age being life, apparently referring to the present age. The Greek construction here places the article before the adjective (age) followed by the noun (life). This construction differs from the usual construction “age life” because it has the article. In this case, however, Jesus is not contradicting the usual phrase “age life,” but emphasizing what life in any age consists of, namely know God the Father, the only true God and Jesus Christ, Whom the Father sent.

13.9 Unworthy. Luke wrote: “Since you judge yourselves unworthy of the age life, behold, we are turning to the Gentiles” (“ἐπειδὴ ἀπωθεῖσθε αὐτὸν καὶ οὐκ ἀξίους κρίνετε ἑαυτοὺς τῆς αἰωνίου ζωῆς, ἰδοὺ στρεφόμεθα εἰς τὰ ἔθνη”) (Acts 13:46). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωῆς”). Paul spoke to Jews in Pisidian Antioch who rejected the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and so Paul turned to the Gentiles who were eager to hear about Jesus. In that context, we see a similar construction to John 17:3. Paul described “the  life of age” (“τῆς αἰωνίου ζωῆς”–genitive article followed by genitive adjective followed by genitive noun) so that the adjective describes “the age of life.” Therefore, this construction supports the view that age life frequently references life in the Millennial Kingdom.

13.10 Appointed.   Luke wrote: “When the Gentiles heard this, rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord; and as many as had been appointed to age life believed.” (“Ἀκούοντα δὲ τὰ ἔθνη ἔχαιρον καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν λόγον τοῦ κυρίου καὶ ἐπίστευσαν ὅσοι ἦσαν τεταγμένοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον·”)  (Acts 13:48). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). Based upon other usage, the best translation may be life in the Millennial Kingdom.

13.11 Perseverance. Paul wrote: “to those who by perseverance in doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, age life” (“τοῖς μὲν καθ’ ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν ζητοῦσιν ζωὴν αἰώνιον,”)  (Romans 2:7). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). With the link to honor and immortality, age life seems appropriate here, in light of other usage. In the context of Romans 2  about judgment and the statement that God will render to each person according to their deeds and the outcomes of either age life or wrath and indignation, the meaning of age life when connected with the Millennial Kingdom, and the time of judgment is in view.

13.12 Outcome. Paul wrote: “But now having been freed from sin and enslaved to God, you derive your benefit, resulting in sanctification, and the outcome, age life” (“νυνὶ δὲ ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (Romans 6:22). In this context, Paul contrasted the outcome of death with the outcome of age life. This age life seems to be the product of sanctification, which seems inconsistent with present eternal life. The translation makes more sense to me to describe final outcomes of death and age life, referring to life in the Millennial Reign of Christ.

13.13 Free Gift of God. Paul wrote: “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of the God is age life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (“τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν”) (Romans 6:23). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιος”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴ”). In this context of the free gift of the Lord Jesus Christ, eternal life was certainly promised as a free gift to all believers, but here the idea of age life also fits the context of the contrasting outcomes of death and age life.

13.14 Reap. Paul wrote: “For the one who sows to his own flesh will reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap age life” (“ὅτι ὁ σπείρων εἰς τὴν σάρκα ἑαυτοῦ ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς θερίσει φθοράν, ὁ δὲ σπείρων εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος θερίσει ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (Galatians 6:8). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν”). In this context of sowing and reaping, the one who sows to the Spirit will reap age life. The phrase we will reap in one’s own time (“καιρῷ γὰρ ἰδίῳ θερίσομεν”), if we we do not grow weary. Although this reference could be to eternal life, the life described is in the future, but may come in one’s lifetime. But true age life comes in the Millennial Kingdom for all the weary who come to Jesus and find rest for their souls.

13.15 Take Hold. Paul wrote: “Fight the good fight of faith, take hold of age life to which you were called, and you made confession in the presence of many witnesses” (“ἀγωνίζου τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς πίστεως, ἐπιλαβοῦ τῆς αἰωνίου ζωῆς, εἰς ἣν ἐκλήθης  καὶ ὡμολόγησας τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν ἐνώπιον πολλῶν μαρτύρων“) (1 Timothy 6:12).  The adjective (“αἰωνίου“)  modifies the term “life” (“ζωῆς“). In this case, eternal life makes sense because of the reference to taking hold of that life right away. Yet, just as one may take hold of eternal life now, so also one may take hold of age life, referring to the kind of life one will live in the Millennial Kingdom.

13.16 Justified. Paul wrote: “So that being justified by His grace we would be made heirs according to the hope of age life” (“να δικαιωθέντες τῇ ἐκείνου χάριτι κληρονόμοι γενηθῶμεν κατ’ ἐλπίδα ζωῆς αἰωνίου“) (Titus 3:7).  The adjective (“αἰωνίου“)  modifies the term “life” (“ζωῆς“). In this verse the future lies in view, with saints made heirs according to the hope of age life. Here the age life remains the object of hope and unseen (see Romans 8:24) and fits well with age life referring to the future Millennial Reign.

13.17 Manifested To Us. John wrote: “We have seen and proclaim to you the age life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us” (“καὶ ἑωράκαμεν καὶ μαρτυροῦμεν καὶ ἀπαγγέλλομεν ὑμῖν τὴν ζωὴν τὴν αἰώνιον ἥτις ἦν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα καὶ ἐφανερώθη ἡμῖν”) (1 John 1:2). The adjective (“αἰώνιον”)  modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν “) and stands in the attributive position. In this context, the phrase means that the apostles saw Jesus firsthand, and the age life was with the Father and was manifested to them (see John 17:3). In this case, eternal life fits the context, but so does a foretaste of the Millennial Reign of Christ with His presence among the saints.

13.18 The Promise.  John wrote: “This is the promise which He Himself made to us: the age life” (“καὶ αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ ἐπαγγελία ἣν αὐτὸς ἐπηγγείλατο ἡμῖν, τὴν ζωὴν τὴν αἰώνιον”) (1 John 2:25). The adjective (“αἰώνιον”)  modifies the term “life” (“ζωὴν “) and stands in the attributive position. Jesus promised eternal life, and that promise sounds future. If so, then it supports the translation age life, with a view towards life in the age of the Millennial Kingdom. The context in 1 John 2:28 specifically references the Millennial Kingdom with the phrase when He appears. Otherwise, the translation eternal life has merit.

13.19 Testimony. John wrote: “This is the testimony, that God has given to us, age life, and this life is in His Son. (“αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία, ὅτι ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν ὁ θεός, καὶ αὕτη ἡ ζωὴ ἐν τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν”) (1 John 5:11). Here without the article, the adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν “). The age life here has two characteristics. First, God has given age life to us, and it does not seem to be a future gift here, but a present gift. Second, the age life is in His Son. Eternal life may be a good translation here because to have the Son is to have life, because that life is in the Son. In the alternative, because the age life is a present gift, and only the life is in Jesus (notice the word “age” was dropped), it could refer to the promise of age life realized in Jesus in the Millennial Kingdom. 1 John 5:12 provides further proof that if you have Jesus, you have life. Likewise, 1 John 5:13 shows that John wrote that we might know we have age life, to those who believe in the name of the Son of God. Therefore, taking the verses together, this passage supports the translation eternal life.

13.20 In the Truth. John wrote: “We are in the truth, in the Son of Him Jesus Christ.  This is the true God and age life” (ἐσμὲν ἐν τῷ ἀληθινῷ, ἐν τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἀληθινὸς θεὸς καὶ ζωὴ αἰώνιος.”) (1 John 5:20). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιος”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴ”). In this context, Jesus Christ is the the true God and age life. As above, eternal life may be a good translation here, because age life is in Jesus Christ, and we have Him now. Age life in many other passages seems to speak of a future age, the Millennial Kingdom.

 

Section Fourteen

Has Age Life

14.1  Someone. Matthew wrote: “And someone came to Him and said, ‘Teacher, what good thing shall I do that I may obtain age life?’”  (“Καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ εἶπεν· διδάσκαλε, τί ἀγαθὸν ποιήσω ἵνα σχῶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον;”)  (Matthew 19:16). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). In this context, someone asked Jesus about the works necessary to obtain age life. Because the Bible recorded the very words of Jesus (John 14:26see the Theology of Bible Translations), we know people were seeking “age life” (“ζωὴν αἰώνιον”). Of course, not to beg the question, what did that term age life mean? Did it mean here eternal life, or life in the age to come? In Matthew 19:23 and following, Jesus talked about rich people entering the kingdom of heaven, which includes the Millennial Kingdom. People are not good, and only God is good. Therefore, it is impossible for people to work their way into heaven. With God, however, all things are possible. Therefore, we know that people were seeking age life, and Jesus discussed age life in the context of the kingdom of heaven. The term “obtain” (“σχῶ”–aorist subjunctive) means may have. Jesus also spoke about the sons of this age in contrast to those of this coming age and the resurrection of the dead. Therefore, people thought about what they had to do during their present life to be considered worthy to have life in the age to come, and be resurrected to live in that age in the Kingdom of God (Luke 20:35Matthew 22:8).

14.2 Believes. John wrote: “As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up; so that whoever believes will in Him have age life” (John 3:14-25) (“Καὶ καθὼς Μωϋσῆς ὕψωσεν τὸν ὄφιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, οὕτως ὑψωθῆναι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐν αὐτῷ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον“) (John 3:14-15). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον“) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν“).  In this context, Jesus was speaking about earthly and heavenly things, including the judgment. While “eternal life” may be a fine translation here, the other uses of “age” (“αἰώνιον“) suggest that Jesus may have been focusing upon believers who may have (“ἔχῃ“–present active subjunctive) age life now, in the present age and the coming age by implication.

14.3 Not Perish. John wrote: “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have age life.” (“ἵοὕτως γὰρ ἠγάπησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον, ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλ’ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (John 3:16). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). The verb “have” occurs in the subjunctive mood, active voice, present tense. In this context, Jesus spoke about deliverance from judgment and destruction. Notice the phrase “not perish”  (“μὴ ἀπόληται’”–negative plus aorist middle subjunctive–see Afterlife for the use of the term “destroyed.”) In this case, the text concerns faith in Jesus as Savior. Whoever does not believe in Him has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only unique Son of God. The judgment is that the Light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than the Light, for their deeds were evil. Jesus came to give His life so that believers may have age life. Because the judgment here has already been rendered, but the perishing remains future, strong arguments could be made for eternal life, or the alternative, age life. Because of the term destruction used so often in terms of the destruction of souls in the afterlife, and the subjunctive “may have,” and the adjectival use of “age,” the text favors age life here,  but either translation fits the context.

14.4 Believes in the Son.  John wrote: “He who believes in the Son has age life; but he who does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him.” (“ὁ πιστεύων εἰς τὸν υἱὸν ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον· ὁ δὲ ἀπειθῶν τῷ υἱῷ οὐκ ὄψεται ζωήν, ἀλλ’ ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ θεοῦ μένει ἐπ’ αὐτόν”) (John 3:36). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). John linked present faith in the Son with having present age life. Notice, however, that the next phrase “shall not see life” looks to the future and the disobedient will not see life. Therefore, we have strong evidence that the phrase “age life” refers to a future age of life, the Millennial Kingdom. The life they will see in the future is life with King Jesus in His kingdom come to earth.

14.5 Does Not Come into Judgment. John wrote: “‘Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.’” (“Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ὁ τὸν λόγον μου ἀκούων καὶ πιστεύων τῷ πέμψαντί με ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον καὶ εἰς κρίσιν οὐκ ἔρχεται”) (John 5:24). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). John explained two resurrections here: the righteous come forth to a resurrection of life, and the wicked come forth to a resurrection of judgment. In this context of resurrection, “age life” makes sense because time of resurrection dominates the passage, and believers come forth to the resurrection of life, which describes life in the Millennial Reign of Christ on earth. The Clouds Resurrection of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 shows that the resurrection may occur seven years before Jesus sets foot on earth, but the resurrected saints return with Jesus to reign with Him on earth (2 Timothy 2:12Revelation 20:6).

14.6 Search the Scriptures.  Jesus said: “You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have age life; it is these that testify about Me” (“ἐραυνᾶτε τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε ἐν αὐταῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἔχειν· καὶ ἐκεῖναί εἰσιν αἱ μαρτυροῦσαι περὶ ἐμοῦ”) (John 5:39). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). In this context, Jesus explained that Moses will accuse them before God the Father (John 5:45-47). Therefore, while the Jews search the Law of Moses, thinking they have life by obedience to that Law, in fact, Moses will accuse them of unbelief in the Son of God standing right before them. The translation “age life” fits well with the context of future trial with witnesses and judgment to follow. Those things will take place in the future (probably the Great White Throne Judgment). Even so, Jesus reveals to unbelievers trusting in the Law of Moses that they are unwilling to come to the Son of God so that they may have life. If they would believe now, they would have life now and avoid future judgement. Instead of being resurrected to judgment, they will not come into judgment because of faith in Jesus, and so would go to a resurrection of life. Based the context of judgment, age life seems the best translation, but eternal life cannot be ruled out here.

14.7 Believes in Him.  John wrote: “For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him has age life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day” (“τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός μου, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ θεωρῶν τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐγὼ [ἐν] τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ”). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). Jesus said that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have age life and I Myself will raise him up on the last day (John 6:40). Several parts of this verse provide insight into John’s use of “age life.”  First, John described “age life” as a present reality, “have” (“ἔχῃ–present active subjunctive–tied to the will of God the Father”). Second, John linked that present reality with two present active participles, beholding and believing. The force of the construction is that believers have age life now, Third, John joined that present reality with the benefit of being raised up on the last day by Jesus Himself (the resurrection to life in the Millennial Kingdom). Therefore, the translation of age life fits the context well.

14.8 He Who Believes.   Jesus promised: “Truly, truly I say to you, he who believes has age life” (“Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ πιστεύων ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (John 6:47). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). Jesus explained that he who believes (“he who believes”–present active participle) has (“ἔχει”–present active indicative) age life. Because of the context connecting age life to being resurrected on the last day, the translation of “age life” fits the context well.

14.9 My Flesh and My Blood.  John wrote: “He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has age life and I will raise him up on the last day” (“ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον, κἀγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ”) (John 6:54). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). Jesus directly connected “age life” with being raised up on the last day. Therefore, because of the connection between age life and resurrection on the last day, the translation “age life” fits the context well.

14.10 Words of Life. John wrote: “Simon Peter answered Him, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? You have words of age life.’” (“ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Σίμων Πέτρος· κύριε, πρὸς τίνα ἀπελευσόμεθα; ῥήματα ζωῆς αἰωνίου ἔχεις”) (John 6:68). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). In this verse, Peter said that “You have”  (“ἔχεις”) the words of “age life.” Because of the context here about resurrection on the last day, the translation “age life” fits well here.

14.11 In Him Abiding. John wrote: “You know that no murderer has age life in him abiding” (“οἴδατε ὅτι πᾶς ἀνθρωποκτόνος οὐκ ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἐν αὐτῷ μένουσαν”) (1 John 3:15). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). John explained that no murderer has (“ἔχει “–present active indicative) age life in him abiding (“μένουσαν”–present active participle). This verse shows that believers have age life now, but unbelievers do not have age life now. The verb and participle are present tense, conveying the present lack of age life. The context here supports the translation “eternal life,” but other uses of the same phrase by the same writer cannot rule out “age life.”

14.12 You May Know. John wrote: “These things I have written to, that you may know that life you have age, to those who believe in the name of the Son of God” (“Ταῦτα ἔγραψα ὑμῖν, ἵνα εἰδῆτε ὅτι ζωὴν ἔχετε αἰώνιον, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ”) (1 John 5:13). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). This construction describes the kind of life, with the adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”). The verb “you have ( ἔχετε –present active indicative”) separates the accusative noun “life” from the accusative adjective “age.”  Taking the context and other matters into consideration, the translation of “eternal life” fits here, but the translation “age life” also fits well by emphasizing the life believers have in the Millennial Age. John emphasized the present knowledge of age life.

 

Section Fifteen

Temporary Things Seen and Age Things Not Seen

15.1 Look Not.  Paul wrote: “while we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are age” (“μὴ σκοπούντων ἡμῶν τὰ βλεπόμενα ἀλλὰ τὰ μὴ βλεπόμενα· τὰ γὰρ βλεπόμενα πρόσκαιρα, τὰ δὲ μὴ βλεπόμενα αἰώνια”)  (2 Corinthians 4:18). Paul contrasted “temporal” (“πρόσκαιρα”) things with “age” (“αἰώνια”) things. The term “temporal” (“πρόσκαιρα”) only occurs here in the New Testament. The prepositional term “πρόσκαιρα” makes a difference here. In this context, the preposition “pros” (“πρόσ”) is joined with the term “kaira” (“καιρα”) to form “πρόσκαιρα.” The preposition “pros” means to the border of something. I like to use the illustration of a bucket filled with water. If you only move your hand “pros” to the bucket, you never touched the water inside. If you moved your hand “eis” to the bucket, your hand got wet, because you went inside the bucket. So, recall all the phrases above using the “eis” construction about into the age, or into the ages, or into the ages of the ages. The movement is into the ages, and your hand got wet. Now consider the term “πρόσκαιρα.” Although it is not always accurate to assume that the preposition always retains its meaning when joined to a noun, it makes sense here to keep the meaning. Similar terms occur in three other passages: (a) Matthew wrote: “yet he has no root in himself, but is temporary, and when affliction or persecution arises because of the word, immediately he falls away” (“οὐκ ἔχει δὲ ῥίζαν ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἀλλὰ πρόσκαιρός ἐστιν, γενομένης δὲ θλίψεως ἢ διωγμοῦ διὰ τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς σκανδαλίζεται”) (Matthew 13:21); (b) Mark wrote: “they have no root in themselves, but are temporary; then, when affliction or persecution arises because of the word, immediately they fall away” (“καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ῥίζαν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀλλὰ πρόσκαιροί εἰσιν, εἶτα γενομένης θλίψεως ἢ διωγμοῦ διὰ τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς σκανδαλίζονται”) (Mark 4:17); and (c) in Hebrews 11:25, we read: “choosing rather to endure ill-treatment with the people of God than to enjoy the temporary pleasures of sin” (“μᾶλλον ἑλόμενος συγκακουχεῖσθαι τῷ λαῷ τοῦ θεοῦ ἢ πρόσκαιρον ἔχειν ἁμαρτίας ἀπόλαυσιν”). In those three passages, we see “pros” joined to the the word for “time” (“καιρὸς”). Jesus helped us understand the concept of “kairos.” Jesus said that ““My time is not yet here, but your time is always ready). (“ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ἐμὸς οὔπω πάρεστιν, ὁ δὲ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος πάντοτέ ἐστιν ἕτοιμος”) (John 7:7–see Matthew 22:8 and Luke 22:33 for the term “ready.”), Therefore, the term “kairos” describes a time of decision and opportunity, which stands in contrast to another term “chronos” (“χρόνος”) used to describe the normal passage of time (Luke 8:27John 14:9Acts 1:21).  A good illustration of “chronos” time is found in Mark 9:21: “How long has this been happening to him?” And he said, “From childhood” (“καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ· πόσος χρόνος ἐστὶν ὡς τοῦτο γέγονεν αὐτῷ; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν· ἐκ παιδιόθεν”) (Mark 9:21), The time at issue has been since childhood. So, the main point here is that when Paul chose the word “to the time of opportunity” (“πρόσκαιρα”), we understand that he was not talking about normal time, but special spiritual time. Therefore, the translation of things seen are “to time of opportunity things” and stand in contrast with unseen “age” things. The opportunity to choose eternal life exists on earth, during one’s lifetime on earth. Therefore we know that temporary time used in Matthew 13:21Mark 4:17 and Hebrews 11:25 not only means earthly time, but a special earthly time to decide before it is too late. So the term “temporary” in those verses means more than just a limited time period, but a time period with an opportunity to make an important decision regarding eternal life. Likewise in Hebrews 11:25, the “temporary pleasures of sin” come at the expense to the time to live for Jesus doing His will and enjoying eternal life in Him. With all that background, Paul meant that the things we see are not going to last to the age, but they are important times to make decisions while we live on earth. In contrast, we do not see the age things, but they concern a time apart from the things we see on earth during our normal lives. The contrast is between qualities (earthly and age) to time and quantities (lifetime on earth and marked periods of spiritual time) of time in 2 Corinthians 4:18.

 

Section Sixteen

Age as a Specific Period of Time

16.1 Specific Time.  The New Testament writers also mentioned specific periods of time related to the term “age.”

16.2 House of Jacob.  Luke wrote:  “He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob to the age, and His kingdom will have no end” (“οὗτος ἔσται μέγας καὶ υἱὸς ὑψίστου κληθήσεται καὶ δώσει αὐτῷ κύριος ὁ θεὸς τὸν θρόνον Δαυὶδ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ βασιλεύσει ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰακὼβ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας καὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔσται τέλος“) (Luke 1:33). This verse provides help in understanding how the term “age” differs from “eternity.” Here, Jesus will reign over the house of Jacob to the age (“εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας”) and His kingdom is not “telos” (“οὐκ ἔσται τέλος”). If the phrase “to the age” simply meant eternity, then adding “it shall have no end” seems unnecessary. But, because Jesus will reign over the house of Jacob to the age, then adding “His reign will have no end” makes perfect sense. Therefore, the phrase “to the age” describes the Millennial Reign and it will have no end in the sense that His reign continues, even after the earth is destroyed later. 

16.3 Age of Prophets. Luke wrote: God spoke by through the mouth of the saints, from age of His prophets (“καθὼς ἐλάλησεν διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων ἀπ’ αἰῶνος προφητῶν αὐτοῦ”) (Luke 1:70). This verse references an age of prophets through whose mouths God spoke. 

16.4 The Ages To Come. Paul wrote: “so that in the ages to come He might show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.” (“ἵνα ἐνδείξηται ἐν τοῖς αἰῶσιν τοῖς ἐπερχομένοις τὸ ὑπερβάλλον πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἐν χρηστότητι ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ”) (Ephesians 2:7). This verse shows that after the present age, more ages come. In at least some of those future ages, God will show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. In a sense, believers will be trophies in the coming ages to the riches of the grace of God.

16.5  The Age of This World. Paul wrote: “in which you formerly walked according to the age of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience” (“ἐν αἷς ποτε περιεπατήσατε κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, κατὰ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ νῦν ἐνεργοῦντος ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας”) (Ephesians 2:2). Paul clearly distinguished “the age” from “the world” in this verse. Some translators translate “age” (“αἰῶνα”) as “world” in some places in the New Testament, but as this article shows, “age” should not be translated as “world,” particularly because they are carefully distinguished in verses like Ephesians 2:2. Here, the age of this world refers to the age in which Paul lived, and that age continues today. We also know that the devil is the prince of the power of the air, and his spirit works in the sons of disobedience. 

16.6 The Last Days. Hebrews provides: “in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the ages” (“ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ, ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων, δι’ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας”)  (Hebrews 1:2). God the Father made the ages through the Son of God. Some translators translate “age” as “world.” Such translations seem inconsistent with other uses in Hebrews. In Hebrews 1:6, some translators again chose the word “into the world” to translate the Greek phrase  “εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην.” The term “οἰκουμένην” means in Hebrews 2:5 the inhabited world. In Hebrews 4:3 and 9:26, we read about the foundation of the world (“ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου”). Therefore, the clumsy translations rendering three different Greek words with the same English word “world” seem less than ideal. Furthermore in Hebrews 10:5, we read about “when He comes into the world” (“εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κόσμον”), again showing that the movement of the Son of God was “into the world” (“εἰς τὸν κόσμον) (compare phrase “into the age” in Section Three above). Likewise, in Hebrews 11:3 by faith we understand that the ages were made ready by the word of God (“Πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ”). In Hebrews 11:7, Noah condemned the world (“κατέκρινεν τὸν κόσμον”). In Hebrews 11:38, we read: “whom the world was not worthy” (“ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος”). Therefore, the writer of Hebrews was very familiar with the terms “κόσμον,” “οἰκουμένην,” and “αἰῶνας” and used them to convey distinct concepts. So, in Hebrews 1:2, God emphasized His creation of the ages, which are more than just the earth, and the phrase “τοὺς αἰῶνας” is plural, making it even more obvious that “world” is a poor translation.

16.7 Made Ready. “By faith we understand that the ages were made ready by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.”  (“Πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ, εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκ φαινομένων τὸ βλεπόμενον γεγονέναι.”) (Hebrews 11:3) As above, the translation of “τοὺς αἰῶνας” as “the worlds” does not reflect the difference in the terms used in Hebrews. In this verse, God made ready the ages by His word, so that we know those ages were not made out of things which are visible, but out of things which are not visible. Indeed, the rulers of the age are not visible to human eyes, and neither are the powers of those ages or the rulers of those ages. God made all things related to those ages ready for His plans and purposes. Some of those ages were very evil.

 

Section Seventeen

Age Salvation 

17.1 Salvation of Age.  Hebrews provides: “And having been made perfect, He became to all those who obey Him the source of age salvation” (“καὶ τελειωθεὶς ἐγένετο πᾶσιν τοῖς ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ αἴτιος σωτηρίας αἰωνίου”) (Hebrews 5:9). Because every other use in Hebrews of the adjective “αἰωνίου”–genitive case means age, so also here always refers to “age” and should not be translated as eternity. In Hebrews 6:2,  we read: “of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead and age judgment” (“βαπτισμῶν διδαχῆς ἐπιθέσεώς τε χειρῶν, ἀναστάσεώς τε νεκρῶν καὶ κρίματος αἰωνίου”). The verse speaks of resurrection of the dead and age judgment, referring to the age when judgment occurs. In Hebrews 9:14,  we read:  “how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the age Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?” (“πόσῳ μᾶλλον τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὃς διὰ πνεύματος αἰωνίου ἑαυτὸν προσήνεγκεν ἄμωμον τῷ θεῷ, καθαριεῖ τὴν συνείδησιν ἡμῶν ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἔργων εἰς τὸ λατρεύειν θεῷ ζῶντι”). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “Spirit” (“πνεύματος”).  This usage of the term “αἰωνίου” here presents the strongest case for the translation “eternal,” because the term applies to the Holy Spirit. Even so, the phrase “of age Spirit” may refer to the Holy Spirit’s ministry in that age, at that time in the life of Jesus, helping Him offer Himself as a perfect, once for all, sacrifice for sin. In Hebrews 9:15, we read:  “For this reason He is the mediator of a new covenant, so that, since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant, those who have been called may receive the promise of the age inheritance” (“Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο διαθήκης καινῆς μεσίτης ἐστίν, ὅπως θανάτου γενομένου εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ παραβάσεων τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν λάβωσιν οἱ κεκλημένοι τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας”). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”), appearing in the attributive position, modifies the noun (inheritance) (“κληρονομίας”). The meaning seems to be a reference to the inheritance received in the age. See the discussion of inheritance above. In Hebrews 13:20,  we read: “Now the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the great Shepherd of the sheep through the blood of age covenant, Jesus our Lord” (“Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης, ὁ ἀναγαγὼν ἐκ νεκρῶν τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων τὸν μέγαν ἐν αἵματι διαθήκης αἰωνίου, τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν“). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “covenant” (“διαθήκης”). The blood sacrifice related directly to the age covenant. God is not saying just any age or any covenant will do, but rather under this age covenant He brought up Jesus from the dead. Therefore, the predominant usage of “age” refers to an adjective modifying a noun related to a particular age, not eternity. So, the age salvation at issue in Hebrews 5:9 follows that same general pattern describing a particular age, not eternity, although the evidence is not conclusive.

 

 

Section Eighteen

Age Covenant 

18.1 Covenant of Age. Hebrews provides: “Now the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the great Shepherd of the sheep through the blood of age covenant, Jesus our Lord” (“Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης, ὁ ἀναγαγὼν ἐκ νεκρῶν τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων τὸν μέγαν ἐν αἵματι διαθήκης αἰωνίου, τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν”). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “covenant” (“διαθήκης”) (Hebrews 13:20). The blood sacrifice related directly to the age covenant. God is not saying just any age or any covenant will do, but rather under this age covenant He brought up Jesus from the dead.

 

Section Nineteen 

 Age Sin

19.1 Age Sin. Mark wrote: “but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit not has forgiveness to the age, but is guilty of an age sin” (“ὃς δ’ ἂν βλασφημήσῃ εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλ’ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος”) (Mark 3:29). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “sin” (“ἁμαρτήματος”). The phrase to “not has forgiveness to the age” (“οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”)  follows the same pattern described above in Section Two regarding “to the age” (“εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα”). That phrase has a particular age in mind, and the sin will carry into that age. The Millennial Kingdom will include judgment. Nothing about that phrase suggests that forgiveness will ever come to the blasphemer of the Holy Spirit. Regarding age sin, the person who blasphemes the Holy Spirit is guilty of age sin, meaning that this sin will have special consequences resulting in judgment for ascribing the works of Jesus to the devil. Theses sinners have seen the work of Jesus up close and personal, and ascribed those works to the devil. 

 

Section Twenty 

Age Time

20.1 To Time Age.  Paul wrote: “Now to Him who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according revelation of mystery has been silenced to times ages” (“Τῷ δὲ δυναμένῳ ὑμᾶς στηρίξαι κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν μυστηρίου χρόνοις αἰωνίοις σεσιγημένου,”) (Romans 16:25). The adjective “ages” (“αἰωνίοις“) modifies the noun “times” (“χρόνοις”). Paul meant that to times ages, periods of time over multiple ages, the mystery (see The New Testament Mysteries) has been silenced, but now revealed through his preaching. Because God controls the revelation of mysteries over many ages, but now revealed them, He now will establish believers according to the Gospel preached by both Paul and Jesus Christ, demonstrating the harmony of their preaching.

20.2 Before Ages of Times.  Paul wrote: “but according to His own purpose ang grace which was granted us in Christ Jesus before ages of times  (“ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἰδίαν πρόθεσιν καὶ χάριν, τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων“) (2 Timothy 1:9). The adjective “ages” (“αἰωνίων“) modifies the noun “times” (“χρόνων“). The preposition “πρὸ” with the genitive case means before ages times. Therefore, God granted believers grace, according to His own purpose, before ages of times.

 

Section Twenty One

The Age of God

21.1  Age of God.  Paul wrote: “but now is manifested, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the age of God, has been made known to all the nations, leading to obedience of faith” (“φανερωθέντος δὲ νῦν διά τε γραφῶν προφητικῶν κατ’ ἐπιταγὴν τοῦ αἰωνίου θεοῦ εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη γνωρισθέντος”) (Romans 16:26). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “God” (“θεοῦ”). In this verse, the idea of translating “ages” as eternity seems very appealing, and may be best. In the alternative, however, the age of God could refer to the age that God has made, and would fit well with the other uses of “age” in the New Testament.

 

Section Twenty Two

Age Judgment

22.1 Of Age Judgment. Hebrews provides: “of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead and age judgment” (“βαπτισμῶν διδαχῆς ἐπιθέσεώς τε χειρῶν, ἀναστάσεώς τε νεκρῶν καὶ κρίματος αἰωνίου”) (Hebrews 6:2). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “judgment” (“κρίματος”).  In this case, immature believers have not come to know the basic doctrines of the faith, including the concepts of resurrection of the dead and judgment in that age (John 5:29).  The context of resurrection and judgment support the translation as age judgment, but “eternal judgment” cannot be ruled out.

 

Section Twenty Three

Age Spirit 

23.1 Spirit of Age. Hebrews provides: “how much more the blood of Christ Who through the age Spirit  offered Himself without blemish to God” (“πόσῳ μᾶλλον τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὃς διὰ πνεύματος αἰωνίου ἑαυτὸν προσήνεγκεν ἄμωμον τῷ θεῷ”) (Hebrews 9:14). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “Spirit” (“πνεύματος”). In this case, it may be best to translate the phrase as “eternal Spirit.”  In the alternative, the idea could be the work of the Holy Spirit in this age concerning the offering of Christ, which happened only once and for all time in this age. Of course the Holy Spirit is eternal, but the text emphasized Jesus offering Himself through the Spirit in this age to sacrifice Himself, with blood and without blemish (see https://christassembly.org/why-have-you-forsaken-me), Even so, when applied to God, the term “”αἰωνίου” should often be translated “eternal.”

 

Section Twenty Four

 Age Inheritance

24.1 Of Age Inheritance.  Hebrews provides: “those who have been called may receive the promise of the age inheritance” (“Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο διαθήκης καινῆς μεσίτης ἐστίν, ὅπως θανάτου γενομένου εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ παραβάσεων τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν λάβωσιν οἱ κεκλημένοι τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας”) (Hebrews 9:15). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “inheritance” (“κληρονομίας”). Therefore, the promise means that in the next age, the believer will receive the inheritance. This inheritance comes in the future age, not right now.

 

Section Twenty Five

 The Ends of Ages 

25.1 The Ends of the Ages. Hebrews provides: “and they were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the ages have come” (“ταῦτα δὲ τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις, ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντηκεν”) (1 Corinthians 10:11). This verse helps us understand that some English translations choose the term “world” to translate the term “ages” (“αἰώνων”) as in Hebrews 1:6, discussed Section Seventeen above. This verse helps us understand that God through Jesus made the ages, distinct periods of time with their own evils and administrations. 

 

Section Twenty Six

 The Last Days

26.1 Last Days. Hebrews provides: “in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the ages.”  (“ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ, ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων, δι’ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας”)  (Hebrews 1:2). God the Father made the ages through the Son of God. Some translators translate “age” as “world.” Such translations seem inconsistent with other uses in Hebrews. In Hebrews 1:6, some translators again chose the phrase “into the world” to translate the Greek phrase “εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην.” The term “οἰκουμένην” means in Hebrews 2:5 the inhabited world. In Hebrews 4:3 and 9:26, we read about the foundation of the world (“ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου”). Therefore, the translations rendering three different Greek words with the same English word “world” seem less than ideal. Furthermore in Hebrews 10:5,  we read about “when He comes into the world” (“εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κόσμον”), again showing that the movement of the Son of God was “into the world” (“εἰς τὸν κόσμον) (compare phrase “into the age” in Section Three above). Likewise, in Hebrews 11:3 by faith we understand that the ages were made ready by the word of God (“Πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ”). In Hebrews 11:7, Noah condemned the world (“κατέκρινεν τὸν κόσμον”). In Hebrews 11:38,  we read: “whom the world was not worthy” (“ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος”). Therefore, the writer of Hebrews was very familiar with the terms “κόσμον,” “”οἰκουμένην,” and “αἰῶνας” and used them to convey distinct concepts. So, in Hebrews 1:2, God emphasized His creation of the ages, which are more than just the earth, and the phrase τοὺς αἰῶνας” is plural, making it even more obvious that the singular “world” is a poor translation. This verse helps us understand that God through Jesus made the ages, distinct periods of time with their own evils and administrations. 

 

 

Section Twenty Seven

Age Punishment

27.1 Age Fire. Matthew wrote: “If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; it is better for you to enter life crippled or lame, than to have two hands or two feet and be cast into the eternal fire” (“Εἰ δὲ ἡ χείρ σου ἢ ὁ πούς σου σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔκκοψον αὐτὸν καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ: καλόν σοί ἐστινεἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν κυλλὸν ἢ χωλόν, ἢ δύο χεῖρας ἢ δύο πόδας ἔχοντα βληθῆναι εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ αἰώνιον”) (Matthew 18:8). No one doubts that unbelievers suffer eternal fire, because of Revelation 14:1119:3, and 20:10. Even so, in this verse, the adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”), appearing in the attributive position, modifies the noun “fire” (“πῦρ”). Therefore, in this case, Matthew emphasized that the fire is age fire, meaning the fire which burns in the next age, and its not like regular fire on earth, because age fire burns both souls and bodies (see Afterlife).

27.2 The Age Fire.  Matthew wrote: “Then He will also say to those on His left, ‘Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels’” (“Τότε ἐρεῖ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ εὐωνύμων· πορεύεσθε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ [οἱ] κατηραμένοι εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ αἰώνιον τὸ ἡτοιμασμένον τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ”) (Matthew 25:41).  The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”), appearing in the attributive position, modifies the noun “fire” (“πῦρ”). Unbelievers are removed from Jesus as He sits on His glorious throne in the Millennium and the depart at His command into the age fire, emphasizing that this fire is unlike normal fire on earth, because it burns both souls and bodies, which was prepared for the devil and his angels, which are non-corporeal beings. Also please note that the age fire described here burns in Hades, and the Lake of Fire. The believers in view in Matthew 25:41 are departing to Hades, because the Great White Throne judgment is more than a thousand years in the future and only then do unbelievers join the devil and his minions in the Lake of Fire (see Afterlife).

27.3 Age Punishment. Matthew wrote: “These will go away into age punishment, but the righteous into age life” (“καὶ ἀπελεύσονται οὗτοι εἰς κόλασιν αἰώνιον, οἱ δὲ δίκαιοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον”) (Matthew 25:46). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “punishment” (“κόλασιν”). As Jesus concluded His Olivet discourse, He described the destiny of the wicked as going away “into age punishment.” Jesus made a specific reference to the age, because the wicked were being sent to Hades, where they will suffer as they await final judgment. After more than a thousand years in Hades, the unbelievers will then appear at the Great White Throne for final judgment, where they will be sentenced according to their deeds, and then thrown into the Lake of Fire, where they suffer to the degree required by their acts (see Afterlife). In contrast, the righteous do not come into judgment regarding salvation, because, at the moment of salvation, they passed out of death into life (John 5:24). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “life” (“ζωὴν”). Jesus meant that the righteous will join Him in the Millennial Kingdom and live there during His Millennial reign, which is a limited period of time, hence the term “age.” After the Millennial Reign of Christ, and after the Final Rebellion of Revelation 20, heaven and earth will have fled away, and a new heavens and earth will come. The righteous will inhabit the New Jerusalem in that future age. We know that believers have eternal life there, because of Revelation 22:5, describing their lives there as to the ages of the ages, a clear reference to eternity.

27.4 Destruction Age. Paul wrote: “These will pay the penalty of age destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power” (“οἵτινες δίκην τίσουσιν ὄλεθρον αἰώνιον ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ κυρίου καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ”) (2 Thessalonians 1:9). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies “destruction” (“ὄλεθρον”). In this context, age describes the time of destruction in Hades. Of course, the wicked suffer destruction in the Lake of Fire after Hades is thrown into the Lake of Fire and after the Great White Throne Judgment (see Afterlife).

27.5 Age Fire. Jude wrote: “just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them, since they in the same way as these indulged in gross immorality and went after strange flesh, are exhibited as an example in undergoing the punishment of age fire” (‘ὡς Σόδομα καὶ Γόμορρα καὶ αἱ περὶ αὐτὰς πόλεις τὸν ὅμοιον τρόπον τούτοις ἐκπορνεύσασαι καὶ ἀπελθοῦσαι ὀπίσω σαρκὸς ἑτέρας, πρόκεινται δεῖγμα πυρὸς αἰωνίου δίκην ὑπέχουσαι”) (Jude 1:7). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun “fire” (“πυρὸς”). Notice that Sodom and Gomorrah are presently experiencing age fire now. This age fire burns in both Hades and the Lake of Fire, but the wicked first go to Hades after death on earth, and then after the Millennial Reign of Christ and the Final Rebellion, they appear at the Great White Throne Judgment and are sentenced to the Lake of Fire (see Afterlife).  

 

 

Section Twenty Eight

Other Uses of Age and Ages

 

28.1 Reserved to Age.  Jude wrote: “wild waves of the sea, casting up their own shame like foam; wandering stars, for whom the black darkness has been reserved to age” (“κύματα ἄγρια θαλάσσης ἐπαφρίζοντα τὰς ἑαυτῶν αἰσχύνας, ἀστέρες πλανῆται οἷς ὁ ζόφος τοῦ σκότους εἰς αἰῶνα τετήρηται”) (Jude 1:13). Evil men infiltrated local assembly and the black darkness has been reserved for them into age. The phrase “into age” (“εἰς αἰῶνα”) described a period of time and it lacks the definite article. The immediate destination of these evil men is Hades, and later the Lake of Fire. In Jude 1:21, believers are commanded to wait anxiously for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to age life. Notice that the believers are waiting for “age life,” which is something they do not have yet. Yet, the unbelievers will be going into “age darkness,” reserved for them at their death.

28.2 Made the Ages. Hebrews provides: “in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the ages” (“ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ, ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων, δι’ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας”) (Hebrews 1:2). As discussed above, God made each age, and in the present age God has spoken to us in His Son.

28.3 Worries of the Age. Jesus warned of the worries of the age.

28.3.1 Worries of the Age.  Matthew wrote: “And the one on whom seed was sown among the thorns, this is the man who hears the word, and the worry of the age and the deceitfulness of wealth choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful” (“ὁ δὲ εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας σπαρείς, οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τὸν λόγον ἀκούων, καὶ ἡ μέριμνα τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ ἀπάτη τοῦ πλούτου συμπνίγει τὸν λόγον καὶ ἄκαρπος γίνεται”) (Matthew 13:22). Each age has its own worries. Jesus emphasized in this passage why some seed grows some, but then the “the worry of the age” (“ἡ μέριμνα τοῦ αἰῶνος”) and the deceitfulness of wealth choke the word, rendering it unfruitful. The translation of “age” (“αἰῶνος”) here refers to the age which began with Christ appearing in the flesh (see Galatians 4:4, God sent forth His Son in the fullness of time (“τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου”), referring to the present age).

28.3.2 Worries of the Age. Mark wrote: “But the worries of the age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the desires for other things enter in and choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.” (“καὶ αἱ μέριμναι τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ ἀπάτη τοῦ πλούτου καὶ αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι εἰσπορευόμεναι συμπνίγουσιν τὸν λόγον καὶ ἄκαρπος γίνεται”) (Mark 4:19). Like Matthew 13:22, Jesus talked about “the worries” (“αἱ μέριμναι”–notice the plural here) of the age (“τοῦ αἰῶνος”). The age beginning with the incarnation of Jesus had its particular worries.

28.4 Sons of the Age. Luke wrote: “And his master praised the unrighteous manager because he had acted shrewdly; for the sons of this age are more shrewd in relation to their own kind than the sons of light” (“καὶ ἐπῄνεσεν ὁ κύριος τὸν οἰκονόμον τῆς ἀδικίας ὅτι φρονίμως ἐποίησεν· ὅτι οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου φρονιμώτεροι ὑπὲρ τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ φωτὸς εἰς τὴν γενεὰν τὴν ἑαυτῶν εἰσιν”) (Luke 16:8). “The sons of this age” (“οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου”) stand in contrast to “the sons of light” (“τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ φωτὸς”). Jesus encouraged the sons of light to be shrewd about money, and put all money to work for the kingdom of God, even the wealth of unrighteousness. The age of the sons of light includes the present age, beginning with the incarnation of Jesus.

28.5 Debater of This Age. Paul wrote:  “Where is the wise man? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?”  (“ποῦ σοφός; ποῦ γραμματεύς; ποῦ συζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου; οὐχὶ ἐμώρανεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ κόσμου”) (1 Corinthians 1:20). In Corinth, steeped in Greek culture, the present age include the “debater of this age” (“συζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου”). The present age, therfore, started with the incarnation of Jesus, and includes the debaters of this age. God has made foolish the wisdom of the world, because in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdom did not come to know God (1 Corinthians 1:21).

28.6 Not of This Age.  Paul wrote: “Yet we do speak wisdom among those who are mature; a wisdom, however, not of this age nor of the rulers of this age, who are passing away” (“Σοφίαν δὲ λαλοῦμεν ἐν τοῖς τελείοις, σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου οὐδὲ τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου τῶν καταργουμένων”) (1 Corinthians 2:6). To the mature, Paul spoke wisdom not of this age (see James 3:15), nor of the rulers of this age. The wisdom of God differs sharply from the wisdom of this age. Apparently, earthly wisdom may change with the age, but the wisdom of God does not change, in the sense that Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God (1 Corinthians 1:24).

28.7 Rulers of This Age.  Paul wrote:  “which none of the rulers of this age has understood; for if they had understood it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory” (“ἣν οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἔγνωκεν· εἰ γὰρ ἔγνωσαν, οὐκ ἂν τὸν κύριον τῆς δόξης ἐσταύρωσαν”) (1 Corinthians 2:8). Notice that this age has its own rulers, and power and authorities in heavenly places also exercise control over people in the age (Ephesians 2:2Ephesians 6:12).

28.8 God of This Age. Paul wrote: “in whose case the god of this age has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.” (“ἐν οἷς ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἐτύφλωσεν τὰ νοήματα τῶν ἀπίστων εἰς τὸ μὴ αὐγάσαι τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς δόξης τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ”) (2 Corinthians 4:4) The god of this age refers to the devil, because he “has blinded the minds of the unbelieving, so that they may not see the light of the Gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God” (“ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἐτύφλωσεν τὰ νοήματα”) (2 Corinthians 4:4–see also John 12:3116:11Ephesians 2:26:12). Therefore, the present age, which began with the incarnation of Jesus, has its own god, the devil, which blinds the minds of people so that they do not see the light of the Gospel of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 3:13-4:3–compare Luke 8:12). 

28.9 Age Weight. Paul wrote: “For the momentary, the lightness of our tribulation, according to beyond and into age beyond produces in us a weight of glory;” (“τὸ γὰρ παραυτίκα ἐλαφρὸν τῆς θλίψεως ἡμῶν καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης κατεργάζεται ἡμῖν”)  (2 Corinthians 4:17). The Greek here may also be translated as “For momentary, light affliction is producing for us an eternal weight of glory far beyond all comparison” (NASB), but it misses the play on words of “καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν,” hence my translation trying to capture that phrase. The point is that the saints suffer tribulation in the present age, and in the age of the Tribulation to come, and the suffering of saints in each age produces a weight of glory.

28.10 The Ages Prepared by the Word of God. Hebrews provides: “By faith we understand that the ages were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible” (“Πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ, εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκ φαινομένων τὸ βλεπόμενον γεγονέναι”) (Hebrews 11:3). Some translations prefer “the worlds were prepared,” but I prefer “the ages were  prepared” because of the use of other terms in Hebrews related to the world and the ages. In Hebrews 1:6, some translators again chose the word “into the world” to translate the Greek phrase  “εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην.” The term “οἰκουμένην” means in Hebrews 2:5 the inhabited world. In Hebrews 4:3 and 9:26, we read about the foundation of the world (“ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου”). Therefore, the translations rendering three different Greek words with the same English word “world” seem less than ideal. Furthermore in Hebrews 10:5, we read about “when He comes into the world” (“εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κόσμον”), again showing that the movement of the Son of God was “into the world” (“εἰς τὸν κόσμον) (compare the phrase “into the age” in Section Three above). Likewise, in Hebrews 11:3 by faith we understand that the ages were made ready by the word of God (“Πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ”). In Hebrews 11:7, Noah condemned the world (“κατέκρινεν τὸν κόσμον”). In Hebrews 11:38, we read: whom the world was not worthy (“ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος”). Therefore, the writer of Hebrews was very familiar with the terms “κόσμον,” “οἰκουμένην,” and “αἰῶνας” and used them to convey distinct concepts. Therefore, we know that God made ready all the ages, each with its own characteristics and inhabitants, revelations, rulers, earthly forms of wisdom, and evil forces at work. In passing, some people find support in this verse for the idea that God created heaven and earth out of nothing, meaning no pre-existent matter. Actually, the verse affirms that God made the ages, spiritual periods of time, and it does not concern the creation of the heaven and earth directly, but the ages, including the age of creation. Even if the translation is “worlds,” the verse still would not support creation from nothing (creatio ex nihilo), because it only compares the things seen with the things unseen, whereas the idea of creatio ex nihilo concerns itself with preexistent things versus non-preexistent things, which are not addressed in Hebrews 11:3.

28.11 Hidden.  Paul wrote: “and to bring to light what is the administration of the mystery which from the ages has been hidden in God who created all things” (“καὶ φωτίσαι [πάντας] τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ ἀποκεκρυμμένου ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων ἐν τῷ θεῷ τῷ τὰ πάντα κτίσαντι”) (Ephesians 3:9).  Paul explained the Mystery of Christ and how God had revealed that mystery through the apostles and prophets of the New Testament. Those mysteries have been hidden in God from the ages (see The New Testament Mysteries). Therefore, Paul recognized a series of ages before the present age.

28.12 Purpose of the Ages. “This was in accordance with the purpose of the ages which He carried out in Christ Jesus our Savior” (“κατὰ πρόθεσιν τῶν αἰώνων ἣν ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν”) (Ephesians 3:11). God revealed the Mystery of Christ through the church to the rulers and authorities in the heavenlies (Ephesians 3:10). Therefore, God controlled the ages according to His purpose to reveal the Mystery of Christ in the present age, according to His manifold wisdom. 

28.13 Age Glory. Paul wrote: “For this reason I endure all things for the sake of those who are chosen, so that they also may obtain salvation which is in Christ Jesus of age glory” (“διὰ τοῦτο πάντα ὑπομένω διὰ τοὺς ἐκλεκτούς, ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ σωτηρίας τύχωσιν τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ μετὰ δόξης αἰωνίου”) (2 Timothy 2:10).  The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίου”) modifies the noun glory (“δόξης”). The salvation of Jesus Christ comes with glory in this age and especially in the glorious age of the Millennial Kingdom.

28.14 Age of Heavens.  Paul wrote: “For we know that if the earthly tent which is our house is torn down, we have a building from God, an age house not made with hands, in the heavens” (“Οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι ἐὰν ἡ ἐπίγειος ἡμῶν οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους καταλυθῇ, οἰκοδομὴν ἐκ θεοῦ ἔχομεν οἰκίανἀχειροποίητον αἰώνιον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς“)  (2 Corinthians 5:1). In my mind, the adjective “age” (αἰώνιον–accusative feminine singular) modifies the nouns “house not made with hands” (“οἰκίαν ἀχειροποίητον–accusatives feminine singular) and not “the heavens” (τοῖς οὐρανοῖς–dative plural masculine). Therefore, Paul was describing the age house not made with hands, which is in the heavens. That age house could refer to the heavenly dwelling of John 14:2, which we will inhabit because Jesus prepared it for the saints and we will be with Him there at death.

28.15 Age Dominion.  Paul wrote: “which He will bring about at the proper time–He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords,  Who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, Whom no man has seen or can see. To Him honor and age dominion! Amen” (“ἣν καιροῖς ἰδίοις δείξει ὁ μακάριος καὶ μόνος δυνάστης, ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλευόντων καὶ κύριος τῶν κυριευόντων, ὁ μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν, φῶς οἰκῶν ἀπρόσιτον, ὃν εἶδεν οὐδεὶς ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ ἰδεῖν δύναται· ᾧ τιμὴ καὶ κράτος αἰώνιον, ἀμήν”) (1 Timothy 6:15-16). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “dominion” (“κράτος”). Paul emphasized in his anthem of praise the dominion of Christ over all ages, and certainly the Millennial Age.

28.16 Age Judgment. Hebrews provides: “of instruction about both washings and laying on of hands, and resurrection both of dead and age judgment” (“βαπτισμῶν διδαχῆς ἐπιθέσεώς τε χειρῶν, ἀναστάσεώς τε νεκρῶν καὶ κρίματος αἰωνίου”) (Hebrews 6:2). The adjective “age” modifies the noun “judgment” (“κρίματος”). The term “τε” implies a closer connection here than the term “καὶ” here. So the groupings are (1) washing and laying on of hands; and (2) dead and age judgment. Therefore, the nouns in each group are more closely related to one another because of the “τε” joining the items in the group than the nouns are to the other group. Therefore, the dead and age judgment join closely together. In this verse, the age judgment in view concerns the resurrection of the dead who go to judgment. Believers do not come into judgment of salvation (John 5:24). Therefore, the judgment at issue concerns the resurrection of the dead, and particularly upon the evil dead going to judgment as Jesus sits on His Millennial Throne and later to final judgment at the Great White Throne Judgment.

28.17 Age Receive Him Back. Paul wrote: “For perhaps he was for this reason separated from you for an hour, that an age you would have him back” (“Τάχα γὰρ διὰ τοῦτο ἐχωρίσθη πρὸς ὥραν, ἵνα αἰώνιον αὐτὸν ἀπέχῃς”) (Philemon 1:15). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “him” (“αὐτὸν”). In this case, the modification of “him” seems difficult to put into English. If one accepts the translation of “age” (“αἰώνιον”)  as “forever,” then the English flows nicely: “have him back forever.” In this context, the concept of forever may also work with the idea of having Onesimus back as a brother in Christ forever. In my mind, the problem is that Onesimus would not be in slavery “forever,” but will live as a brother forever. His slavery may last for an “age,” because Paul generally wanted slaves to continue to serve their masters, if they cannot gain their freedom through lawful means (Ephesians 6:5-81 Timothy 6:1-2Colossians 4:11 Corinthians 7:21-24). Therefore, the best translation will take into account the adjective “age” modifying the term “him” (both accusative case) in some way that retains the original meaning without great damage to the text or becoming too stilted in English. My attempt is “that an age you would have him back.” 

28.18 Age Gospel. John wrote: “And I saw another angel flying in midheaven, having an age gospel to preach to those alive on earth, and to every nation and tribe and tongue and people” (“Καὶ εἶδον ἄλλον ἄγγελον πετόμενον ἐν μεσουρανήματι, ἔχοντα εὐαγγέλιον αἰώνιον εὐαγγελίσαι ἐπὶ τοὺς καθημένους ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶν ἔθνος καὶ φυλὴν καὶ γλῶσσαν καὶ λαόν”) (Revelation 14:6). The adjective “age” (“αἰώνιον”) modifies the noun “gospel” (“εὐαγγέλιον”). The translation of “eternal gospel” sounds nice, but the term “eternal” should not be an automatic translation of “age.” Salvation from creation forward always involves symbols of God covering  sins, with a view that God promised to send a divine Savior at the proper time to make final and complete atonement. In 1 Corinthians 15:1-4, Paul explained that his Gospel included Christ dying for our sins according to the Scriptures and that He was raised from the dead, according to the Scriptures. Clearly it is beyond the scope of this article to explore whether belief in the resurrection of the Savior was an essential element of Old Testament salvation. Doubt arises over the twelve disciples having such a hard time with the concept that Jesus must die and be resurrected, even thought the Old Testament clearly taught the same (Luke 24:25-27; see also Abraham in Hebrews 11:17 and John 8:56). The point is that the “age gospel” will certainly have the elements of 1 Corinthians 15:1-4, but how will it be presented by the angel and shared among people all over the world during the Tribulation? The gospel is always eternal, in the sense it produces eternal salvation by faith, and faith comes by hearing and hearing by the word of Christ (Romans 10:17Ephesians 2:8-9), and that translation may be best. But, because of the delivery by the angel, and the worldwide preaching, God may have emphasized the “age gospel” for those people on earth at that time.

28.19 Age Comfort. Paul wrote: “Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us age comfort and good hope by grace,” (“Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς καὶ [ὁ] θεὸς ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν ὁ ἀγαπήσας ἡμᾶς καὶ δοὺς παράκλησιν αἰωνίαν καὶ ἐλπίδα ἀγαθὴν ἐν χάριτι,”)  (2 Thessalonians 2:16). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίαν”) modifies the noun “comfort” (“παράκλησιν”). Again, the translation “eternal comfort” fits the text and may best. Yet, unless resurrected saints experience affliction, then I find it hard to understand how they require continuing comfort. The presence of Jesus always provides strength and encouragement, and Jesus will wipe away every tear, but the question remains about how much comfort the resurrected saints require? So, I question in what sense is comfort eternal? The answer to that question must be related directly to “eternal comfort” or “age comfort.” I have no doubt that in some sense, our salvation by grace alone provides eternal comfort that we are not in Hades (Luke 16:23-26) or the Lake of Fire, the destinies all sinners deserve. My concern is that God may be emphasizing a particular comfort which God pours out upon the people of each age, suffering particular afflictions in each age. The Tribulation will be the time of the most extreme afflictions ever seen, and no flesh would have survived, except God cut those days short (Matthew 24:22). Furthermore, the general context of 2 Thessalonians 2 concerns Paul’s warning that the Thessalonians not be shaken by false messages that the day of the Lord has come. Paul corrects such false teaching by reminding them that  the man of lawlessness must appear first and reign upon the earth, until the Lord slays him with the breath of His mouth at His coming (1 Thessalonians 1:1-12). Then Paul encouraged the Thessalonians with the message of strength and standing firm, as they hold to the traditions they were taught (1 Thessalonians 6:15-16). Paul then concludes the epistle with the blessing: “Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us eternal comfort and good hope by grace, comfort and strengthen your hearts in every good work and word.” The emphasis in that blessing was present action in that age. Furthermore, the comfort appeared to be tied to their hope. Like there, in other places Paul linked comfort to hope (Romans 15:42 Corinthians 1:7), and we no longer hope for what is seen (Romans 8:24). Therefore, the alternative translation “age comfort” fits the context that describes the saints’ work and words in the present age, as they receive present comfort in this age, because they still hope for the coming of Jesus. 

28.20 Age Redemption. Hebrews provides: “and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained age redemption”  (“οὐδὲ δι’ αἵματος τράγων καὶ μόσχων διὰ δὲ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος εἰσῆλθεν ἐφάπαξ εἰς τὰ ἅγια αἰωνίαν λύτρωσιν εὑράμενος”)  (Hebrews 9:12). The adjective “age” (“αἰωνίαν”) modifies the noun “redemption” (“λύτρωσιν”). No doubt the saints’ redemption is eternal and permanent in every way. Yet, is that the best translation in this context? Yes, it is the best translation here because through the “eternal Spirit” (Hebrews 9:14) Christ obtained that “eternal redemption.” In this context, the best translation of the term “αἰωνίαν” matches the use of the same term to describe the offering of Christ through the “eternal Spirit.” See Section Twenty Three above, Age Spirit.

 

For the sake of easy review, I have listed New Testament verses below concerning age in its various forms.

 

  1. Matthew 21:19
  2. Mark 3:29
  3. Mark 11:14
  4. Luke 1:55
  5. John 4:14
  6. John 6:51
  7. John 6:58
  8. John 8:35
  9. John 8:51
  10. John 8:52
  11. John 10:28
  12. John 11:26
  13. John 12:34
  14. John 13:8
  15. John 14:16
  16. 1 Corinthians 8:13
  17. 1 Corinthians 9:9
  18. Ephesians 2:2
  19. 2 Timothy 4:10
  20. Hebrews 1:8
  21. Hebrews 5:6
  22. Hebrews 6:20
  23. Hebrews 7:17
  24. Hebrews 7:21
  25. Hebrews 7:24
  26. Hebrews 7:28
  27. 1 Peter 1:25
  28. 1 John 2:17
  29. 2 John 1:2
  30. Jude 1:13 
  31. Luke 1:33
  32. Romans 1:25
  33. Romans 9:5
  34. Romans 11:36
  35. Romans 16:27
  36. 2 Corinthians 11:31
  37. Galatians 1:5
  38. Philippians 4:20
  39. 1 Timothy 1:17
  40. 2 Timothy 4:18
  41. Hebrews 1:2
  42. Hebrews 11:3
  43. Hebrews 13:8
  44. Hebrews 13:21
  45. 1 Peter 4:11
  46. 1 Peter 5:11
  47. Jude 1:25
  48. Revelation 1:6
  49. Revelation 1:18
  50. Revelation 4:9
  51. Revelation 4:10
  52. Revelation 5:13
  53. Revelation 7:12
  54. Revelation 10:6
  55. Revelation 11:15
  56. Revelation 14:11
  57. Revelation 15:7
  58. Revelation 19:3
  59. Revelation 10:10
  60. Revelation 22:5 
  61. Matthew 12:32
  62. Mark 10:30
  63. Luke 18:30
  64. Romans 12:2
  65. 1 Corinthians 3:18
  66. Ephesians 1:21
  67. 1 Timothy 6:17
  68. Titus 2:12 
  69. 2 Corinthians 4:18 
  70. 2 Thessalonians 2:16 
  71. Hebrews 9:12
  72. Romans 16:25
  73. Matthew 18:8
  74. Matthew 19:16
  75. Matthew 19:29
  76. Matthew 25:41
  77. Matthew 25:46
  78. Mark 10:17
  79. Mark 10:30
  80. Luke 10:25
  81. Luke 18:18
  82. Luke 18:30
  83. John 3:15
  84. John 3:16
  85. John 3:36
  86. John 4:14
  87. John 4:36
  88. John 5:24
  89. John 5:39
  90. John 6:27
  91. John 6:40
  92. John 6:47
  93. John 6:54
  94. John 10:28
  95. John 12:25
  96. John 17:2
  97. Acts 13:48
  98. Romans 2:7
  99. Romans 5:21
  100. Romans 6:22
  101. 2 Corinthians 4:17
  102. 2 Corinthians 5:1
  103. Galatians 6:8
  104. 2 Thessalonians 1:9
  105. 1Timothy 6:16
  106. Philemon 1:15
  107. 1 Peter 5:10
  108. 2 Peter 1:11
  109. 1 John 1:2
  110. 1 John 2:25
  111. 1 John 3:15
  112. 1 John 5:11
  113. 1 John 5:13
  114. Jude 1:21
  115. Revelation 14:6 
  116. John 12:50
  117. John 17:3
  118. Romans 6:23
  119. 1 John 5:20
  120. Mark 3:29
  121. Mark 16:8
  122. John 6:68
  123. Acts 13:46
  124. Romans 16:26
  125. 1 Timothy 6:12
  126. 2 Timothy 2:10
  127. Titus 1:2
  128. Titus 3:7
  129. Hebrews 5:9
  130. Hebrews 6:2
  131. Hebrews 9:14
  132. Hebrews 9:15
  133. Hebrews 13:20
  134. Jude 1:7 
  135. Luke 16:9 
  136. 2 Timothy 1:9 
  137. Titus 1:2
  138. Matthew 13:22
  139. Matthew 13:39
  140. Matthew 13:40
  141. Matthew 13:49
  142. Mathew 24:3
  143. Matthew 28:20
  144. Mark 4:19
  145. Luke 1:70
  146. Luke 16:8
  147. Luke 20:34
  148. Luke 20:35
  149. John 9:32
  150. Acts 3:21
  151. Acts 15:18
  152. 1 Corinthians 1:20
  153. 1 Corinthians 2:6
  154. 1 Corinthians 2:8
  155. 2 Corinthians 4:4
  156. Galatians 1:4
  157. Ephesians 3:21
  158. Hebrews 1:8
  159. Hebrews 6:5
  160. 2 Peter 3:18
  161. Jude 1:25 
  162. 1 Corinthians 2:7
  163. 1 Corinthians 10:11
  164. Galatians 1:5
  165. Ephesians 3:9
  166. Ephesians 3:11
  167. Ephesians 3:21
  168. Philippians 4:20
  169. Colossians 1:26
  170. 1 Timothy 1:17
  171. 2 Timothy 4:18
  172. Hebrews 9:26
  173. Hebrews 13:21
  174. 1 Peter 4:11
  175. Revelation 1:6
  176. Revelation 1:18
  177. Revelation 4:9
  178. Revelation 4:10
  179. Revelation 5:13
  180. Revelation 7:12
  181. Revelation 10:6
  182. Revelation 11:15
  183. Revelation 14:11
  184. Revelation 1577
  185. Revelation 19:3
  186. Revelation 20:10
  187. Revelation 22:5

HALLELUJAH !