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Christ Ascended and Descended 

Ephesians 4:7-11

Section One


1.1 The Body of Christ. In the Book of Ephesians, Paul described many aspects of the church, the body of Christ, composed entirely of born-again believers (saints). In Ephesians 4: 7-10, Jesus laid the foundation for giving spiritual gifts to the body of Christ. That foundation included Jesus giving a special spiritual gift to each born-again believer. As we study Ephesians 4:7-10, please recall that God said He breathed out every word of the Bible (2 Timothy 3:16; Jeremiah 26:2). Therefore, every word in the original autographs matter and every word conveys meaning.

1.2 Grace Given. Paul built upon the unity of the faith in Ephesians 1:1-6. The bond of peace holds the body of Jesus Christ together. Each member of the body of Christ must spiritually strive to maintain that unity. Jesus only has one body of born-again believers, with one calling, one hope, on Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all of us, who is over all all and through all and in all. 

1.3 Individuality. Even the most cursory look at all of creation shows that God loves individuality and variety among the greater unity. So also, God loves to equip saints (born-again believers) for the work of individual ministry. Writing under the inspiration of God, Paul explained that to each member of the body of Christ God gave grace according to the measure of Christ’s gift (“κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ“). 


Section Two

Ascended, Captives, Gifts

Ephesians 4:8

4. Three Time Markers. Paul described a series of three events related to spiritual gifts. 

4.1 Christ Led Captive a Host of Captives. The first time marker concerns the ascension of Jesus to heaven. Jesus ascended from the Mount of Olives.

  1. Ἀναβὰς ascended  Acts 1
  2.  ᾐχμαλώτευσεν aorist active indicative, 3s  Only NT use. He took captive captivity. The captivity noun is singular.  Compare Romans 7:23 for the verb with acc . 
  3. αἰχμαλωσίαν  noun acc feminine singular captivity, group of captives  See Revelation 13:10 C destined for captivity, go to captivity translated singular here, not host The force here is that Jesus took away captivity itself and held it captive See Isaiah 61  The believers were freed when captivity taken away captive  
  4. αἰχμαλωτίζοντά  present active participle, accusative masc singular Romans 7:23 “making me a prisoner (“αἰχμαλωτίζοντά με “) of the law of sin which is in my members;   waging war (“ἀντιστρατευόμενον”) against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner (“αἰχμαλωτίζοντά”) of the law of sin and death  The captivity refers to the prisoner of sin an death.
  5. αἰχμαλωτισθήσονται future passive indicative, 3p  Luke 21:24 Jews led captive into all the nations notice phrase αἰχμαλωτισθήσονται εἰς τὰ ἔθνη πάντα  here translated as verb
  6. αἰχμαλωτίζοντες  present active participle, nominative masc singular first plural  Corinthians 10:5 we are taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ; 2 Timothy 3:6 taking captive weak women 
  8.  αἰχμαλώτοις masculine dative plural Luke 4:16 NOUN proclaim release to the captives 

Believers still battle their thoughs and still fight against principalities and powers.

Jesus led captivity itself away as a captive. Jesus led the enslavement to sin captive and took it away so that people would be free from sin. See all the verses deaing with sin.


Lower Parts of the Earth

  1.  κατέβη εἰς  Ephesians 4:9
  2. κατέβη εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ John 2:12
  3. κατέβη εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν Acts 18:22

Heart of the Earth

  1.  ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ τῆς γῆς τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας  Matthew 12:40  Like Jonah, Jesus spent three days in the heart of the earth, referring body buried in the earth
  2. ἐκχυννόμενον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς  Matthew 23:35 blood poured out upon the earth
  3. αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς Matthew 24:30 tribes of the earth attributive position with the genitive

Face of the Earth

  1. ἐπὶ πρόσωπον πάσης τῆς γῆς Luke 21:35 dwell upon the face of the earth
  2. πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων κατοικεῖν ἐπὶ παντὸς προσώπου τῆς γῆς Acts 17:26

Upon the Earth

  1. ἔσῃ μακροχρόνιος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Ephesians 6:3 place for the living
  2. ἐτρυφήσατε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς James 5:5 lived luxuriously upon the earth
  3.  κρίνεις καὶ ἐκδικεῖς τὸ αἷμα ἡμῶν ἐκ τῶν κατοικούντων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Revelation  6:10 judging and avenging our blood on those who dwell upon the earth 
  4.  οἷος οὐκ ἐγένετο ἀφ’ οὗ ἄνθρωπος ἐγένετο ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Revelation 16:18 Not since man came to be upon the earth

Out of the Earth

  1.  ὢν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐστιν καὶ ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαλεῖ.  ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐρχόμενος John 3:31
  2. κἀγὼ ἐὰν ὑψωθῶ ἐκ τῆς γῆς, πάντας ἑλκύσω πρὸς ἐμαυτόν. John 12:32 see 12:31 νῦν κρίσις ἐστὶν τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, νῦν  ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἐκβληθήσετ
  3. Αἶρε ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς τὸν τοιοῦτον, οὐ γὰρ καθῆκεν αὐτὸν ζῆν. Acts 22:22 Means here to die

Remotest Part of the Earth

  1. καὶ ἔσεσθέ μου μάρτυρες ἔν τε Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ [ἐν] πάσῃ τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ καὶ Σαμαρείᾳ καὶ ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς Acts 1:8
  2. εἶναί σε εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς Acts 13:47

Earth Below

  1.  σημεῖα ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς κάτω Acts 2:19 following comparative after article + noun

In the Heavens and in the Earth

  1. τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Ephesians 1:10 summing up of all things
  2. ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Colossians 1:16 Created all things in the heavens and in the earth
  3.  εἰρηνοποιήσας διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ σταυροῦ αὐτοῦ, [δι’ αὐτοῦ] εἴτε τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἴτε τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς Colossians 1:20 Made peace through His cross

The Lower of the Earth

  1. τὸ δὲ Ἀνέβη τί ἐστιν εἰ μὴ ὅτι καὶ κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα [μέρη] τῆς γῆς Ephesians 4:9

The Body upon the Earth

  1. Νεκρώσατε οὖν τὰ μέλη τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Colossians 3:5 the members of the your earthly body

Upon the Earth Caves, etc

  1.   ἐπὶ ἐρημίαις πλανώμενοι καὶ ὄρεσιν καὶ σπηλαίοις καὶ ταῖς ὀπαῖς τῆς γῆς Hebrews 11:38 Even caves and holes described with present passive partciple n mas sing + dative
  2. οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς καὶ οἱ μεγιστᾶνες καὶ οἱ χιλίαρχοι καὶ οἱ πλούσιοι καὶ οἱ ἰσχυροὶ καὶ πᾶς δοῦλος καὶ ἐλεύθερος ἔκρυψαν ἑαυτοὺς εἰς τὰ σπήλαια καὶ εἰς τὰς πέτρας τῶν ὀρέων Revelatoin 6:15 Kings and all hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains

Fruit of the Earth

  1. ἰδοὺ  γεωργὸς ἐκδέχεται τὸν τίμιον καρπὸν τῆς γῆς James 5:7 produce of the earth soil still 

Under the Earth

  1. καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς οὐδὲ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς ἀνοῖξαι τὸ βιβλίον οὔτε βλέπειν αὐτό Revelation 5:3 No one worthy in heaven, upon the earth, under the earth
  2. καὶ πᾶν κτίσμα  ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντα, ἤκουσα λέγοντας,  Revelatoin 5:13 all those places have things in them who say blessings to God Compare the dead will not praise you.

Arising out of the Earth

  1. Καὶ εἶδον ἄλλο θηρίον ἀναβαῖνον ἐκ τῆς γῆς Revelation 13:11 arose out of the earth (see Jesus talking about people out of the earth); beast did not come from under the earth

From the Earth

  1. οἱ ἠγορασμένοι ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς Revelation 14:3 purchased from the earth

Out of the Abyss

  1. καὶ μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγει: καὶ θαυμασθήσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Revelation 17:8 Beast out of the abyss, dwellers upon the earth

Slain on the Earth

  1. καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐσφαγμένων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς Revelation 18:24 slain on the earth

Jesus went to Paradise


Jesus Was Not Abandoned to Hades, Nor did His flesh suffer decay  

  1. ὅτι οὐκ ἐγκαταλείψεις τὴν ψυχήν μου εἰς ἅ|δην, οὐδὲ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν Acts 2:27 God forsook Jesus by not delivering Him from suffering and death, but God never forsook Jesus to Hades and did not allow His body to undergo decay; instead, Jesus went to paradise that day.
  2.  ὅτι οὔτε ἐγκατελείφθη εἰς ἅ|δην οὔτε  σὰρξ αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν Acts 2:31 Resurrection includes not going to Hades nor having your flesh suffer decay
  3. Οὐ μή σε ἀνῶ οὐδ’ οὐ μή σε ἐγκαταλίπω Hebrews 13:5 Never leave you nor forsake you 
  4. Εἰ μὴ κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐγκατέλιπεν ἡμῖν σπέρμα Romans 9:29
  5. Δημᾶς γάρ με ἐγκατέλιπεν ἀγαπήσας τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα 2 Timothy 4:10 
  6. Θεέ μου θεέ μου, ἱνατί με ἐγκατέλιπες Matthew 27:46
  7.  θεός μου  θεός μου, εἰς τί ἐγκατέλιπές με Mark 15:34

Compaarative Genetive not likely. The attributive adjective is in the attributive position. 


Matthew 11:23 Capernaum exalted to heaven. No, it will descent to Hades.


One would expect the superlative Ta Katotata tes ges and the not the comparaitive ta katotera


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