Psalm 82 │Divine Council? │Who Are the Elohim?
“I Said, ‘You are gods’“
Expository Bible Studies
1.1 Elohim. In Psalm 82, Asaph wrote that God takes His stand in His own congregation, confronts the “elohim” and demands justice from the “elohim.” Who are those elohim? Are they gods (like Yahweh)? Are they gods (like angels)? Are they humans, serving God as judges on earth? As we look briefly through the Psalm, we will see the flow of the passage and gain insight into the elohim of Psalm 82. Please keep in mind that I believe the Bible when it says the very words of the original autographs were breathed out by God, and so the very words matter (2 Timothy 3:16-17; Jeremiah 26:2; John 14:26; Galatians 3:15-16). At the outset, please understand the spiritual nature of exegesis. God used direct revelation from Himself to His prophets to convey spiritual truths. Evil spiritual forces oppose God’s revelation and attack the inspiration of Scripture. They also adopt pagan theology under the guise of cognate studies of pagan religions and texts.
1.2 The demon prophets Problem. As God’s chosen people prepared to enter the promised land inhabited by pagans, God warned them to destroy both the places of pagan worship and to avoid all pagan worship practices. God specifically warned His people not to be ensnared by learning pagan practices and participating in them. God described the pagans as people who commit every abominable act which Yahweh hates; they even burn their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods (Deuteronomy 12). Notwithstanding that warning, the people of Israel embraced those foreign gods and suffered the consequences. People today fall into the ancient abominations of the people of Israel. People today who study ancient near eastern religions and claim that the Old Testament authors incorporated theology from the ancient civilizations around them often fall into the demon prophets trap, perhaps unwittingly or perhaps intentionally. The term “demon prophets” means humans speaking under the influence of demons. Some people see similar words and similar theology in the Old Testament that correspond to the theology of pagan religions surrounding Israel. They then conclude that the Old Testament authors brought both those terms and that pagan theology into the Old Testament. At that point, they face serious issues.
1.2.1 The Truth of the Old Testament. The study of comparative religions often leads to people embracing pagan theology. Let me explain. The crucial question centers upon theological truth.
220.127.116.11 Cognate Studies. Some people study ancient religions so that they may learn more about the Old Testament. Cognate words may shed light upon Old Testament words. Cognate grammar and syntax may illuminate Old Testament grammar and syntax. Depending upon the use of those studies, they may help us understand the Old Testament. Even so, fundamental Study Sins must be avoided. Study Sins means that some studies may be proper in themselves, but used to produce abominable conclusions and practices. We know that great are the works of Yahweh, and they are studied by all who delight in them (Psalm 111:2).
18.104.22.168 Ugarit, Ras Shamra, Ebla Tablets. According to some modern archeologists, Ugarit was once a port city in northern Syria, but destroyed about 1190 B.C. In A.D. 1929, it was accidentally discovered and research began into its history and culture, with particular interest in the mound of Ras Shamra. People found clay tablets written in the Ugaritic language. They described Ugaritic pagan practices focusing upon Baal. The temples in Ugarit included places for the worship of Baal (the son of El) and Dagon (the god of fertility and peace). According to the clay tablets, a pantheon of gods controlled the world, and they did not get along. For example, the clay tablets described god Baal Hadad destroying his enemy, god Yam. Some people read the tablets describing the foolish pagan worship of so-called gods Baal, El, and Dagon. Those folks then noticed similarities between the Ugaritic pagans’ ideas about their gods and the Old Testament. With nothing more than some distant similarities between pagan words and doctrines and Old Testament revelation, those people moved liberal people to embrace pagan theology as the basis for Old Testament theology. In essence, some people jumped to the conclusion that the Ugaritic pagan’s view of the unseen cosmos must have infiltrated the Old Testament. According to many people, Psalm 82 presents a description of God judging heavenly beings for their failure to judge the earth. In essence, according to this view, at some point in the past, God granted judicial authority to a group of sinful non-humans. Following that view further, God allowed the people on earth to suffer the consequences of their evil judgments. Furthermore, in that upside-down view, God intended for the widows, orphans, and poor in the congregation of Israel alive on earth to appeal to absent pagan non-humans for legal protection; in the alternative, their view requires that the non-humans do not directly intervene judicially in the lives of humans at all. In their view, Old Testament authors used the pagan cosmology to describe the living God of Israel. In contrast, the New Testament reveals in detail that the devil rules this world, under the limited grant of authority from God. God holds the devil and his demons accountable, with the revelation that the Lake of Fire was created for the devil and his angels. Baal never receives even a mention by name in the New Testament, except as a single Old Testament quotation in Romans 11:4. The problem of adopting Canaanite theology into the Old Testament becomes very apparent in the New Testament. While revelation is progressive, the truths of theology remain constant over time. They do not change with the culture around them. Jesus is the same yesterday, today, and tomorrow. In one astonishing leap, many people concluded that the Old Testament writers adopted terms and theology familiar to them from the popular culture of the Canaanite pagans inhabiting the land around them. Of course, those people leaping into foolishness never grasp the timing problem arising from date of the clay tablets about 1200 B.C., long after many portions of the Old Testament were written. Those people also ignore or minimize the differences between the pagan gods and the Living God of Israel revealed in the Old Testament. Ugarit stoked the fire of pantheistic pagan cosmology. The One God of the Old Testament revealed Himself as the God of loving-kindness and salvation from before creation. Among the various pantheons influencing pagans over time, many liberal people today champion the pagans of Ugarit as the true authors of Psalm 82, claiming one way or another it adopts their pagan cosmology. In fact, Asaph wrote Psalm 82 sometime after 1100 B.C., building upon Old Testament theology dating back to creation itself. Long before 1200 B.C., God had revealed Himself as the One living God, Creator of all things. After creation, man sinned and began worshiping other so-called gods, and ignoring the Creator. Some authors today claim that Psalm 82 is merely a polemic against the Ugaritic, Canaanite gods. Even so, some of those authors tend to embrace the Ugaritic pagan cosmology as truthful reflections of the unseen cosmos. Why believe the doctrine of demons?
22.214.171.124 Fundamental Questions. Does pagan theology undergird Old Testament theology? More fundamentally, people must decide if they believe the Old Testament authors accurately described all aspects of theology they addressed. If you believe that Old Testament authors borrowed theology from pagans, then the pagans had that theological truth before the Old Testament authors. Where did the pagans’ theology come from? Demon prophets provided that pagan theology to deceive the nations in the past and present.
126.96.36.199 The Divine Council and Pagan Theology. Anyone claiming that the divine council has strong ties to pagan religion must avoid the the demon prophets trap. In other words, if you claim that: (a) the divine council of pagan religions accurately describes theology; and (b) the Old Testament authors adopted that divine council theology into the Bible, then you have fallen into the the demon prophets trap. The divine council claims sound similar in essence to the claims about the Enuma Elish claims regarding the Babylonian Epic of Creation. In essence, if your study of pagan theology concerning ancient councils and epics leads you to conclude the Old Testament authors incorporated pagan theology revealed by demon prophets, then you are trapped between two choices: (a) the Old Testament does not accurately describe the theology it addressed; or (b) demon prophets provided the theological foundation for the Old Testament. Be careful that you do not deny verbal, plenary inspiration or embrace the theology of demon prophets. As a side note, Jesus provided divine commentary on Psalm 82 in John 10. In John 10, Jesus responded to a charge that a man (like Himself) cannot be God. Anyone who opines that Psalm 82 concerns Canaanite deities must satisfactorily explain why Jesus allegedly used sinful non-humans (Canaanite deities) to refute a charge that God cannot be a man. Jesus did not appeal to God reproaching non-humans to prove His deity and humanity. See John 10:22-39. The Psalmist did not write on earth to warn absent Canaanite gods, but human judges in the congregation of Israel facing immediate judgment by God Himself.
188.8.131.52 Paul and the Greek Poet. Let me be clear here. Paul quoted a Greek poet, “For we also are His children,” but he did so in a very limited way and explicitly explained why he made the quotation (Acts 17:28). No doubt pagans know great truths about theology, even when they suppress that knowledge, reject God, and suffer the consequences (Romans 1). The issue here centers upon Old Testament authors adopting pagan theology without attribution and proper limits. Paul did not use the Greek poet to learn theology or adopt that theology, but to show that even a Greek poet knows some truth about God. Please keep in mind I am using the term “theology” in a very broad sense of all things related to God. Another root of the issue concerning the demon prophets trap concerns the doctrines of revelation and inspiration.
1.3 Spiritual Warfare. Exegesis involves intense spiritual warfare. The devil seeks to deceive everyone who studies the Bible. The devil tempted Jesus by misapplying Scripture, but Jesus correctly applied Scripture to refute the devil. Our own reason will never be a reliable guide to understanding the Bible. While we must use logic and analysis to understand the Bible, we build upon the foundation that our thoughts are not Yahweh’s thoughts and our ways are not Yahweh’s ways (Isaiah 55:8). By the wisdom of this world people never knew God (1 Corinthians 1:21). Indeed, the wisdom of this world is earthly, natural and demonic (James 3:15). Every person born again not only sees the kingdom of God, but also has an anointing which teaches us all things and helps us avoid being deceived (1 John 2:26-27). People who distort the Scriptures do so to their own destruction (2 Peter 3:14-18), for God uses His word to bring faith in Christ which leads to salvation (Romans 10:17). Therefore, because of the surpassing value of the Scriptures, we know that the devil will devise schemes to undermine the Scriptures.
1.4 The Revelation and Inspiration of the Old Testament. The devil often attacks the inspiration of the Bible using many schemes. The Bible leaves no doubt that God delivered word-for-word revelation to the prophets (Jeremiah 26:2), because men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke for God (2 Peter 1:21). Therefore, we know that the Old Testament authors produced completely accurate statements about all matters they addressed. Of course, if you find errors in the Old Testament, then you do not believe in the verbal, plenary inspiration of the Bible, but in human error mixed with God’s truth. The uniform testimony in the Bible is that God breathed out the truth, and guaranteed its veracity by commanding all men to abide by His revelation. God provided inspired Scripture so that people would profit from its teaching, reproof, correction and training in righteousness. In order to profit, people must know and apply God’s revelation. If they accurately apply God’s revelation, then they will be adequate before God, and so equipped for every good work (2 Timothy 3:16-17). The devil and his minions completely oppose every good work, and so seek to undermine the Bible, because it provides perfect revelation from God. The moment you believe that humans wrote the Old Testament based upon knowledge they acquired from pagan theology, and so adopted that theology in any form into the Old Testament, you no longer believe that God inspired all of the Old Testament. Instead, you now believe that the demon prophets inspired both pagan religion, and by extension, the Old Testament. Repent and turn back to the truth of God inspiring the Bible through human authors moved by the Holy Spirit to speak for God, not demons. Of course the Hebrew of Isaiah sounds different from the Hebrew of Jeremiah, and the Aramaic of Daniel and Ezra reflect different styles. Even so, the words they chose, the grammar they used, and the syntax they employed, were produced by God speaking to them so that the final words, syntax and grammar of the original autographs were breathed out by God with all His perfection. Psalm 82 │ Divine Council? │ Who Are the Elohim?
2. God Stands and Judges
2.1 Takes His Stand. In Psalm 82:1, God takes His stand in His congregation. This term “takes His stand” (נִצָּ֥ב–stands Himself to reflect the Niphal participle with a reflexive sense) may mean to stand up, or to stand against. In Numbers 22:31-34, the angel of the LORD stood (נִצָּ֥ב) with sword drawn against Balaam the prophet for his evil behavior. Therefore, we see that the term “takes His stand” in His own congregation may mean God stands as an adversary. So, the question becomes, God opposes whom here? Before we answer that question from the text, we may benefit from a review of the phrase “His own congregation.”
2.2 His Own Congregation. The phrase “his own congregation” literally means “in the congregation of El (בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל).” This exact phrase only occurs in Psalm 82. The feminine noun “congregation” stands in relationship with the masculine noun absolute “el.” So, “elohim” (God) takes His stand in the congregation of el. “Elohim” has a plural ending, and “el” appears singular. From the first verse of Genesis, the term “elohim” can be translated as “God,” as God created the heavens and the earth. Although the word “elohim” has a plural ending, it is translated in Psalm 82:1 (New American Standard Bible) as a singular “God” and then, later in the same verse, “elohim” is translated as “rulers.” How can we distinguish the different meanings of the same term in the same verse? We can start by comparing Scripture with Scripture.
2.3 Elohim. In other parts of the Old Testament, the term “elohim” may refer to beings other than God Himself. Likewise, the term “el” may refer to beings other than God Himself. In any case, in Daniel 11:36, we learn that God is the God (“El”) of gods (“elohim”).
2.4 Divine Beings? The question here turns upon who are the beings of “His own congregation” in Psalm 82:1? Based upon the use of the term “congregation” elsewhere in the Old Testament, we would expect the phrase “His own congregation” to refer to the general meaning of the term “congregation” in the Old Testament.
2.5 Congregation. Regarding “His own congregation (בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל—congregation of El”), the people of Israel are frequently called the congregation of the sons of Israel. The term “congregation” has a very interesting meaning in Numbers 27:17. There, Moses asked the God of the spirits of all flesh to appoint a man over the congregation to go out and come in before them, so that the “congregation of the Lord (“עֲדַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה“) will not be like sheep which have no shepherd.” Notice the phrase “congregation of the Lord” still refers to the congregation of human Israel, and, in that context, emphasized the close connection of the congregation to Yahweh. They were the sheep of Yahweh and deserved a man with the Spirit of God within him to lead the sheep of Yahweh.
2.6 Congregation of Yahweh. In Joshua 22:16, we read about “the congregation of the LORD (עֲדַ֣ת יְהוָ֗ה).” This phrase “the congregation of the LORD” refers to the people of Israel alive on earth and obviously humans. Therefore, we see the predominate usage of the term “congregation” generally refers to the congregation of the people of Israel. Likewise, the term “the congregation of the LORD” also refers to the people of Israel. Based upon my review of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament using a computer program, and reviewing several Hebrew Lexicons, I did not see any use of the Hebrew term for “congregation” to refer to any humans except the humans of Israel, with a few exceptions. In Psalm 68:30 “beasts in the reeds,” God used a figure of speech to refer to humans, perhaps not just the people of Israel. In Judges 14:8, God referred to a swarm of bees in a lion’s carcass. In Psalm 1:5, God referred to the assembly of the righteous, which may include humans not from the congregation of Israel nor alive when Psalm 1:5 was written. In Psalm 22:16, the band of evil doers refers to humans who may not be uniformly from the congregation of Israel or alive at the time Psalm 22 was written. In Job 15:34, the congregation of the Godless refers to humans who may not be alive at the time of writing and not of the congregation of Israel. Several Hebrew lexicons displayed their theological bias by suggesting that Psalm 82:1 concerned a congregation of angels; even then, Psalm 82 was their only reference to the term “congregation” meaning angels. Therefore, with the exceptions described above, about 140 uses of the term “congregation” refers to the human congregation of Israel; the term “congregation” is never used of non-humans, except once for bees. See Appendix One below, Chart of the Usage of בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל in the Old Testament.
2.7 Host of Heaven. Terms other than “congregation” may refer to non-human beings in the Old Testament. For example, the term “host of heaven” certainly refers to a group of beings standing before the throne of Yahweh, and that group includes various spirits which are not human, but may enter humans and influence or control them (1 Kings 22:19-23). Furthermore, Exodus 15:11 demonstrates that among the gods, no one is like Yahweh. So, I am not dismissing the clear teaching of Scripture that heaven has many beings.
2.8 Humans. The “congregation,” however, at issue in Psalm 82:1, based upon the Old Testament usage of the Hebrew word used there for “congregation,” does not appear to be composed of anything other than humans. Therefore, when God takes His stand in His own congregation, He appears to be standing in the midst of the people of Israel. Moreover, He judges in the midst of the “elohim.” Now we know that when God judges in the midst of the “elohim,” those “elohim” were part of His congregation, and that only humans composed His congregation, and more precisely that congregation consisted of the people of Israel. Therefore, because only humans compose the entire congregation, we know that the “elohim” must be a subset of His congregation which refers to the people of Israel. So, God judges in the midst of humans (“elohim”). Therefore, a good translation of “elohim” at the end of Psalm 82:1 would be some form of humans. We would have to look at the entire context of Psalm 82 to narrow down the translation. The “elohim” of Psalm 82:1 are the same beings at issue in Psalm 82:2-8. The rest of the Psalm deals with the failure of judges exercising jurisdiction upon the earth. As a subset of the human congregation, the judges (“elohim”) appear to be humans also (see also Exodus 22:8, where human judges are called “elohim.”) Therefore, any notion of a divine council composed of non-humans seems misplaced in Psalm 82. Now we can trace through God’s message to those judges.
2.8.1 Jeremiah 23:18, 22. Furthermore, in Jeremiah 23:18, 22, Jeremiah wrote that God does have a council (“sod”), but a different Hebrew word appears there. Therefore, it is not parallel to Psalm 82 discussing the congregation of the El, as noted above.
2.8.2 Psalm 89 Compared. Many people appeal to Psalm 89 to prove that Psalm 82 describes a council of non-humans. They mix apples and oranges in their argument, because the Hebrew term for “congregation” in Psalm 82 never appears in Psalm 89. As discussed above, please keep in mind that that the Hebrew term for “congregation” in the Old Testament never references any non-humans, except once for bees. Verbal inspiration of the words makes a big difference here. Psalm 89 uses a different Hebrew term, “council” (“sod”), referring to a council of “holy ones.” Psalm 89 also references the Lord of Hosts. Therefore, Psalm 89:7 is not parallel in the use of crucial Hebrew terms. Even so, based upon those verses, God certainly had a place where He spoke and announced His words to His people, apparently in front of many beings. The main point is that the “congregation” is in view in the Psalm 82 and a “council” is in view in Psalm 89; apples and oranges cannot be compared as the same things. The Hebrew words are not the same and have very different meanings, as discussed more fully below.
2.8.3 Psalm 89–Council Distinguished from the Congregation of El. Some people argue that God has a council located in the clouds (Psalm 89:5-7), and, in their minds, that means that the “congregation” at issue in Psalm 82 must also be in the clouds, for they claim that God only has one such council. Before we accept such a claim, we must examine the text in Psalm 89. In Psalm 89:5, Ethan the Ezrahite used the phrase “in the assembly of the holy ones” (“בִּקְהַ֥ל קְדֹשִֽׁים“), found only there in the Old Testament. The words of Psalm 89:5 are not the same as the “council of El” in Psalm 82:1. Additionally, in Psalm 89:6, the Psalmist questions who in the sky (“בַ֭שַּׁחַק”) is comparable to Yahweh? The text does not state plainly that the “assembly of the holy ones” is in the clouds. Further, in Psalm 89:6-7, the Psalmist also questions who among the sons of elim (“בִּבְנֵ֥י אֵלִים“) is like Yahweh, a God (אֵ֣ל ) greatly feared in the council of holy ones (“בְּסֹוד־קְדֹשִׁ֣ים”). Assuming for the sake of argument that the assembly of the holy ones is in the clouds, and that the sons of God are in the assembly of the holy ones (“בִּקְהַ֥ל קְדֹשִֽׁים“) and in the council of holy ones (“בְּסֹוד־קְדֹשִׁ֣ים”), such declarations seem inconsistent with the fall of some of the sons of God in previous Old Testament passages. Equating “holy ones” (“קְדֹשִֽׁים“) with the “sons of God” (“בִּנֵ֥י אֵלִים”) would also require clear textual support. Psalm 89:7 indicates that Yahweh is greatly feared in the council of holy ones (“בְּסֹוד־קְדֹשִׁ֣ים”), and feared above all those who surround Him (“וְ֝נֹורָ֗א עַל־כָּל־סְבִיבָֽיו”). Questions arise about whether the council of the holy ones and the assembly of the holy ones are part of the group who surround Yahweh. Arguments about poetic structures and parallelism may be helpful at times, but they must be elaborated with convincing textual support. Finally, Psalm 82 does not use the phrase “sons of God” or the phrase “assembly of holy ones.” The term “holy ones” (“קְדֹשִֽׁים“) occurs many times in the Old Testament, but only in Leviticus 11:44, 45; 19:2, 20:7, 26; 21:6; and Numbers 15:40, 16:3 does the term clearly apply to humans, and then it refers to the people of Israel. In many instances, the term “holy ones” occurs as most holy (“קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים”) related to sacrifices and consecration. In Proverbs 9:10, the knowledge of the “Holy One” (“קְדֹשִׁ֣ים”) is understanding; see also the similar use in Proverbs 30:3. In Ezekiel 36:38 the term holy ones (“קְדֹשִׁ֣ים”) was applied to flocks for sacrifice, and then applied to flocks of men in the cities under the judgment of God. In Joshua 24:19 God is described as a holy God (“כִּֽי־אֱלֹהִ֥ים קְדֹשִׁ֖ים ה֑וּא“). In Zechariah 14:5, all holy ones (“כָּל־קְדֹשִׁ֖ים”) will return with Yahweh to the Mount of Olives, but Zechariah did not link those holy ones with a divine council. The Old Testament does not use the term “holy ones” to refer to non-human members of any council, unless it is only in Psalm 89. Instead, we know that believers will return to the clouds of earth with Jesus (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18) and the armies of heaven (including angels) will accompany Jesus when He returns to earth (Revelation 19:14). It seems hard to imagine that a group of sinful non-humans, condemned in Psalm 82, would return to earth with Christ. If the Nephilim in Genesis 6 were angels, then consider Jude 1:6 and the “angels” (“ἀγγέλους”) described there who did not keep their proper abode are now being kept in eternal bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great day. Likewise, 2 Peter 2:4 indicates that God cast angels who sinned into Tartarus and committed them to pits of darkness, reserved for judgment (“ἀλλὰ σειραῖς ζόφου ταρταρώσας παρέδωκεν εἰς κρίσιν τηρουμένους”) (see 12.6, The Afterlife). Tartarus and the eternal bonds pose serious issues for any view of Psalm 82 describing evil beings who had previously sinned in Genesis 6 as ruling the world and judging the world. Therefore, we also know that the term “holy ones” cannot exclude humans. In fact, apart from Psalm 89 (and perhaps Zechariah 14), the term “holy ones” frequently applied to humans, and never to angels or other non-humans. Therefore, any interpretation of “holy ones” in Psalm 89 should be prepared to account for the lack of supporting passages using the phrase “holy ones” to describe a council of non-humans. Psalm 89 is not parallel in the text to Psalm 82, and really to no other passage in the Old Testament if it describes a council of non-humans. Any claim that Psalm 89 helps us understand Psalm 82 must present compelling evidence in the text to dispute the textual evidence described above.
2.9 The Chiastic Structure Argument. Different people employ chiastic analysis of Psalm 89 in different ways. Some people argue that Psalm 82:1 chiastic analysis forces the interpretation that the “elohim” cannot be humans. This argument only works if you assume the conclusion before you examine the chiasm. Let me explain. If you look at the following chiasm, you being to see some issues with a chiastic analysis of Psalm 82:1. If the chiasm follows an “abba” structure, then it may be as follows:
a God takes His Stand
b in the congregation of El
b in the midst of the elohim
a He judges.
Judging from that chiastic analysis, the “a” phrases both describe the activity of God, and the “b” phrases describe the judges. Nothing about that chiasm demands either a human or non-human interpretation of the “b” phrases. The “b” phrases simply relate “the congregation of El” to the “elohim.” The “b” phrases could refer to humans or non-humans, but either would fit the structure. So, if you claim the chiasm definitively settles the issue of human or non-human judges, then you have begged the question. All the chiasm requires is that both parts of the “b” phrases refer to the same entities: judges are part of the congregation of el and are elohim, but they could be humans or non-humans. The structure does nothing to settle the issue nor compels the interpretation that the second “elohim” be humans or non-humans. Chiastic structural analysis only requires that the “congregation of El” relates to the “elohim.” Even that relationship is not well defined in the “b” phrases, just as the “a” phrases emphasize related, but not identical, activity of God (unless you equate “taking His stand” to be identical with “judges,” which does not capture the differences between the two related activities of God). The identity of the “elohim” remains at issue, even after chiastic analysis. The “congregation of El” certainly included the “elohim,” but having proved that point, it does not resolve the issue of the identity of “the congregation of El” or the “elohim” at issue.
2.10 Human Judges. In Deuteronomy 16:18-20, Yahweh outlined to Moses the procedure for establishing judges and officers in the towns which the “LORD your God” is giving to the people of Israel. Yahweh directed that the people of Israel (humans) appoint for themselves both judges and officers in their own towns, according to their tribes. They must judge with righteous judgment. The text emphasized that humans would appoint humans to judge them. The judges and officers came from the human tribes of Israel. Furthermore, Yahweh ordered them to avoid distorting justice, showing partiality, and taking bribes. God noted that a “bribe blinds the eyes of the wise and perverts the words of the righteous.” If someone wants to argue that Psalm 82:2-3 excludes human judges in favor of non-human judges, then they must explain why Deuteronomy 16:19 does not apply in Psalm 82. The burden of proof rests upon proponents of the non-human view. The elohim of Psalm 82 render judgments with partiality to the wicked. The evil judges oppress the weak and fatherless.
2.10.1 Problem One: Human Judges. Deuteronomy 16:18-20 presents several problems for anyone seeing non-human judges in Psalm 82. First, the first judges of Israel in the promised land were all humans, appointed by humans and charged by God to judge righteously. Therefore, we know that humans appointed human judges for each tribe, as God commanded. So, if people want to argue that non-human judges are at issue in Psalm 82, they would have to overcome the presumption that human judges are at issue, based upon Deuteronomy 16:18-20.
2.10.2 Problem Two: Bribes. Second, human judges could be bribed by humans, but how would humans bribe non-human judges? At times, the people promoting a view of non-humans ruling Israel appear to overlook some of the Bible passages at odds with their views of Psalm 82. The judges of Psalm 82 appear to be taken to account for the precise deeds of Deuteronomy 16:19. The judges of Psalm 82 judge unrighteously in the ways that fit with Deuteronomy 16:19.
3. The Charge: Judges Judging Unjustly
The problem at issue in Psalm 82 concerns the acts of the judges. They are judging the people of Israel unjustly and deserve to be taken to account. Among their wicked errors, they show partiality and fail to vindicate the weak and fatherless (or motherless) and do justice to the afflicted and destitute. They must rescue the weak and needy and deliver them from the hand of the wicked. They do not know nor do they understand. They walk about in darkness and all the foundations of the earth are shaken. These judges act wickedly, forsaking their commission from God to render judgments from Him and for His name. Therefore, we see that Psalm 82 focused upon the failures of judges to obey the code of judicial ethics established by God. God will certainly pronounce an appropriate judgment upon them.
4. The Verdict and the Death Penalty
4.1 I Said, “You are gods”. In Psalm 82:6, the perspective changed and God spoke (through Asaph) in the first Person: “I said, ‘You are gods.'” God called the human judges of Israel “elohim” in Exodus 22:9 and so the identification of human judges as “elohim” there fits perfectly with Psalm 82:6. In Exodus 22:9 the plural verb used with term “elohim” identifies those “elohim” as the human judges from the congregation of the sons of Israel who rendered the decision. The background of Exodus 18-22 helps us to understand Psalm 82:6. In Psalm 82:6, God spoke (through Asaph) in the first Person: “I said, ‘You are gods.’” The exact phrase “I said” (“אֲֽנִי־אָ֭מַרְתִּי“) only occurs five times in the Old Testament. In 1 Chronicles 21:17, David looked back and said that all the blame for the census should fall upon him alone. In Psalm 41:4-5, David, in the midst of false friends and wicked attacks, looked back and said he trusted in the grace and healing of the eternal God. In Psalm 116:11, the Psalmist looked back and said in his alarm that all men are liars. In Isaiah 38:10, Hezekiah looked back and said that in the middle of life he would enter Sheol and be deprived of the rest of his years. All the uses of the term (“אֲֽנִי־אָ֭מַרְתִּי“) described actual events that happened on earth and were spoken about humans in the congregation of Israel. Therefore, in Psalm 82:6, the question becomes: when was a previous time that God called the beings in the congregation of El (“בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל”) “gods”? The events described in the five uses of “I said” were all significant events. Notice that the “I said” statement always emphasized an important historical event in the life of the congregation of Israel. Therefore, we may look for a previous time when God called some beings in the congregation of El (“בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל”) “elohim.” The use of the plural verb with the term “elohim” in Exodus 22:9 shows that God called human judges “elohim” when He appointed them as judges over the congregation of the sons of Israel. Therefore, God called the human judges of Exodus 22:9 “elohim” from the days of Moses. The background to Exodus 22:9 fully supports the conclusion that God called human judges “elohim.” In Exodus 18:16-17, Moses indicated that people of the congregation came to him to inquire of God (“אֱלֹהִֽים”) regarding a dispute. Moses then made known to them the statutes of God (“אֶת־חֻקֵּ֥י הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים“) and His laws (“וְאֶת־תֹּורֹתָֽיו”). Please take notice of the ministerial function of Moses there in applying the statutes and laws of God. Moses decided disputes based upon the revelation from God in the form of statutes and laws. In Exodus 18:19 Jethro told Moses that God (“אֱלֹהִֽים”) would be with Moses and “you be the peoples’ representative before God (“הֱיֵ֧ה אַתָּ֣ה לָעָ֗ם מ֚וּל הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים”) and you bring the disputes to God” (“וְהֵבֵאתָ֥ אַתָּ֛ה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִֽים“). Because God was with Moses, he functioned as the designated member of the congregation of Israel in presenting disputes for God to resolve. Exodus 18:20 provides crucial information: then Moses would teach the congregation of Israel the statutes and the laws (“אֶת־הַחֻקִּ֖ים וְאֶת־הַתֹּורֹ֑ת“) and “make known to them the way in which they are to walk and the work they are to do.” Notice that Moses played a crucial, dual role in the congregation of Israel regarding the statutes and the laws. As judge and representative of the congregation of Israel, Moses interacted with God and then taught the people of God the statutes and laws revealed by God. The revealed statutes and laws formed the basis for judgment. Moses implemented Jethro’s advice to select out of all the people (“מִכָּל־הָ֠עָם”) individuals meeting the following requirements: able men who: (a) fear God (“אַנְשֵׁי־חַ֜יִל יִרְאֵ֧י אֱלֹהִ֛ים“); and (b) are men of truth (“אַנְשֵׁ֥י אֱמֶ֖ת“); and (c) hate unjust gain (“שֹׂ֣נְאֵי בָ֑צַע“). Notice that these judges were selected from the congregation of the sons of Israel. In Exodus 20-21 Moses received revelation from God directly related to the work of the judges. In Exodus 20:22 Yahweh gave Moses specific directions to deliver the message from Yahweh to the sons of Israel (“אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל“). In Exodus 21:1 Yahweh provided specific judgments (“הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים”) for Moses to set before the sons of Israel. In Exodus 22:8 we read that if a thief is not caught, then the owner of the house shall appear before the judges (“אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים”) to determine guilt or innocence. In Exodus 22:9, both parties must come before the judges (“אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים”); he whom the judges condemn (“יַרְשִׁיעֻן֙ אֱלֹהִ֔ים“) shall pay double to his neighbor. In this case the “elohim” render judgment (Hiphil third person plural). The plural verb associated with the “elohim” stands in contrast to the singular verbs used to describe the actions of God in Exodus 18:1, 23; 20:1, 19; 22:31. Therefore, the plural verb in connection with “elohim” means they were human judges, because every reference to God as judge occurred with a singular verb. Therefore, any claim that “elohim” never refers to humans must explain satisfactorily why the plain meaning of the Hebrew text In Exodus 22:9 should be ignored.
4.2 Sons of the Most High. In Psalm 82:6, God called those “elohim” sons of the Most High. While the terms “sons of God” always, or virtually always, refers to angels or non-humans in the Old Testament, God called the “elohim” sons of the Most High. Some would argue based upon the Hebrew usage of the phrase “sons of God” that God must be referring to non-human beings in Psalm 82:6.
4.2.1 Luke 6:35. In Luke 6:35, however, we read that humans following the commands of Christ will be sons of the Most High. So, because of the unity of Scriptures with one God writing the entire Bible, humans can be included in the class of sons of the Most High. I understand that some people might want to argue dispensational, hermeneutical, or economic reasons for distinguishing Luke 6:35, but I believe it clearly opens the door to Psalm 82:6 referring to humans. Any argument about “sons of God” must account for both: (1) the difference between “sons of God” and the “sons of the Most High”; and (2) the use of the term “sons of the Most High” (“υἱοὶ ὑψίστου“) in Luke 6:35 referring to humans.
4.2.2 Psalm 82:6. In Psalm 82:6, the term “sons of the Most High” (בְנֵ֖י עֶלְיֹ֣ון) seems significant because God never applied the terms “sons of the Most High” to any non-humans, unless it is only in Psalm 82:6. In some other contexts, the “Most High” stands as the Redeemer of Israel (Psalm 78:35). I also find it interesting that Asaph described the “Most High” as the LORD over all the earth (Psalm 83:18). In Psalm 83, Asaph ascribed to the “Most High” absolute sovereignty over the human nations, human princes and human nobles who oppose God. Therefore, Asaph clearly used the same term “Most High” to emphasize God’s power and sovereignty over high-ranking humans in Psalm 83. So, any argument that the phrase “sons of the Most High” cannot refer to humans must deal with the use of the term in other Psalms.
4.3 Psalm 83. Some people argue that the phrase “sons of the Most High” (בְנֵ֖י עֶלְיֹ֣ון) refers to non-human “elohim.” They argue that Psalm 82:7 serves as a strong adversative because the non-human “elohim” die. Normally, non-humans like angels and demons do not appear to undergo physical death, because they are by nature non-corporeal beings. So, if God imposes death upon members of the “divine council” composed of non-humans, that would be a very great judgment. That argument runs counter to the Most High acting against humans who die a physical death in Psalm 83. Asaph used the term “Most High” (עֶ֝לְיֹ֗ון) to refer to God standing over the highest humans on earth. Asaph in Psalm 83 does not use the term “Most High” to refer to God as the highest among non-humans or a council of non-humans. Therefore, the term “Most High” cannot be limited in meaning to the superlative rank of God above other elohim in Psalm 82:6. Asaph dispelled such a notion in his use of the same term “Most High” in Psalm 83 to refer to God’s sovereignty over humans. Now we can turn to a more detailed discussion of the relationship of Psalm 82:7 to Psalm 82:6 and the rest of the Psalm.
4.4 Strong Adversative. Some people argue that Psalm 82:7 presents a strong adversative to the “I said” statement of Psalm 82:6. They argue further that the “elohim” of Psalm 82 must be non-humans, because they will be condemned to death like men. They “presuppose” the immortality of the “elohim,” but they “presuppose” from silence in the text. Some try to explain how non-humans (“elohim”) die in Psalm 82:7 by describing a spiritual death. So, the argument goes that (1) because men cannot be like men, (2) the verse only makes sense if non-humans (“elohim”) die like humans. One class of beings must be opposed to a different class of beings for the comparative to make sense. In other words, they argue men cannot die like men, because that would be a meaningless adverse comparison.
4.5 Circular Reasoning. Some people also argue that based upon the “presupposed” immortality of the “elohim,” God imposes “mortality” upon the “immortal elohim” for their failures as judges. This argument rests upon presupposing the truth, which amounts to circular arguments, and not exegesis. While the “elohim” are indeed “sons of the Most High,” the contrast involves the differences between God and the “elohim.” The identity of the “elohim” would not necessarily affect that contrast, because the “elohim” are not God. On a different level, the contrast also involves exalted “elohim” falling to their death, just like Adam. Therefore, they can be contrasted in multiple ways. If one argues that the immortal become mortal, and that is the contrast, then they would have to prove the “immortality” of the “elohim” at issue, and not merely presuppose it. God condemns many people to death for their actions, even exalted judges of His congregation.
4.6 The “Shining Ones” Problem. In passing, some people embracing the divine council view translate the last phrase of Psalm 82:7 (הַשָּׂרִ֣ים) as die like one of the “Shining Ones.” Some people argue that “the Shining Ones” are not humans, despite the fact that the other uses of the exact term “the shining ones” (הַשָּׂרִ֣ים) always refers to humans (“the princes” in New American Standard). To support their claim that “the Shining Ones” are non-humans, some people cite Daniel 10:13-21 to prove their point; others point to Isaiah 14:12. In that famous Isaiah passage, we read about a star or shining one (הֵילֵ֣ל), the king of Babylon who fell from heaven. The only other use of that exact Hebrew term occurs in Zechariah 11:2, but appears there as a hiphil verb. The common Hebrew word for star (כֹּוכָ֜ב) was not used In Psalm 82. Some people link the “Shining One” with Lucifer in Isaiah 14:12-15. Taking all those claims at face value, the contrast would be that just as satan sinned and died, so also the elohim sinned and died. Yet, Jesus explicitly taught that the angels cannot die in the sense of humans dying a physical death (Luke 20:36). So, any claim of “elohim” passing from “immortality” to “mortality” cannot involve any kind of physical death if the “elohim” of Psalm 82 are included by Jesus in Luke 20:36. In the divine council view, if the “elohim” of Psalm 82 cannot physically die, like humans die physically, then spiritual death must be in view. But more telling, if physical death like Adam is in view, then following that view the contrast is between non-human “elohim” dying physically (hard to imagine for non-corporeal beings) from sin just as Adam died from sin and you are back to Hosea 6, dealing with humans dying for their sins.
4.7 The Internal Inconsistency Problem. Finally, the internal inconsistency of the divine council view of the adversative qualities of Psalm 82:6 and Psalm 82:7 becomes most apparent in their view of the identity of the princes or “Shining Ones” of Psalm 82:7. Some people first argue that the contrast must be between non-humans and humans. This explanation, however, crumbles with their explanation of “Shining Ones” being non-humans. If the “Shining Ones” of Psalm 82:7 are non-humans, then they see a contrast between non-humans in Psalm 82:6 (they claim the “elohim” are non-humans) and the “Shining Ones” of Psalm 82:7 who are also non-humans. They first rejected a contrast between humans and humans as no contrast at all, but then accepted a contrast between non-humans and non-humans. The internal inconsistency of their position seems apparent. They appear to overlook the fact that Psalm 82:7 describes both “men” and “Shining Ones,” and, according to the divine council view, they are not the same, but contrast with each other. If they contrast with each other in Psalm 82:7, how do they together contrast with the “elohim” of Psalm 82:6? No such internal inconsistency exists if the “elohim” and the “men” and the “princes” are all humans. Internal inconsistencies rupture the logic of any position and must be resolved one way or another. Before we accept any argument about one or more contrasts in Psalm 82:6 and Psalm 82:7, the Hebrew term translated “like men” bears further investigation.
4.8 Hosea 6:6-11. In Hosea 6:6-11, God speaks of His judgment going forth like light upon Ephraim and Judah. In that passage, Hosea used the same Hebrew term “like man” (כְּאָדָ֣ם) which Asaph used in Psalm 82:7. The New American Standard Bible translated that same Hebrew term in those passages differently. In Hosea 6:6, we see another “I” statement followed by the same Hebrew term “like man,” but the term is translated in New American Standard and English Standard Version as “like Adam.” In fact, the only other place where the exact same Hebrew term “like man” is used is in Job 31:33, and it also appears in translation there as “like Adam.” Similarities abound between Hosea 6 and Psalm 82. In Hosea 6, God spoke of coming judgment upon the evil workers of Gilead, Israel and Judah. God promised those evil humans that they will die like Adam (the same “contrast” of men dying like men). Therefore, in Psalm 82:6, we could well translate the verse “Nevertheless you will die like Adam and fall like any one of the princes.” Such a translation perfectly fits the context and would be consistent with the same usage in Hosea 6. So, the objection that the contrast of men with men resolves because the adversative is between the exalted status of the judges, called “elohim” and “sons of the Most High,” but even with that exalted position and high titles, they sinned and nevertheless suffer the same judgment of death God imposed upon Adam.
4.9 God Rules the Nations. Some people find support in Psalm 82:8 for a “divine council” ruling over the world. According to some “divine council” interpretations of Psalm 82, the human judges of Israel were never appointed over all the “nations” and so the “elohim” at issue in Psalm 82 could not be the human judges of Israel.
4.9.1 Eschatological Theme. Some people argue that non-humans rule the nations, and so the elohim cannot be humans, because the human rulers of Israel never rule the nations. Before anyone accepts that argument, please notice that the appeal in Psalm 82:8 is for God (“Elohim”) to judge, not a “divine council” to judge, and not even human judges to judge. In Psalm 82:8, Asaph reiterates a very common eschatological theme in the Old Testament: Messiah will come and bring judgment upon the world (1 Samuel 2:10; Isaiah 2:4; 3:13; 16:5; Ezekiel 7:3, 8; Joel 3:12; Micah 3:10-12, 4:3; ). Even before the coming of Messiah, God will bring judgment upon His people (including the judges) for their wicked deeds and scatter them among the nations (Deuteronomy 30:1; Jeremiah 25:12; Daniel 9:1-6; Habakkuk 1:1-13). If the people of Israel called on God to bring justice to the oppressed of their country, would they be prohibited from calling upon God to judge the entire world, as He has promised when Jesus returns to earth to reign (Zechariah 14:1-21; Acts 17:35; Matthew 25:31-46)? The call for God to judge the world picks up a familiar eschatological theme of God’s future judgment of all the earth (e.g., Amos 9:9). Therefore, any claim that the judges of Israel do not judge the “nations” overlooks the theme of God judging the entire earth, beginning with Israel. Likewise, David called upon Yahweh to arise and rage against his adversaries, for Yahweh has appointed judgment (Psalm 7:6; see also other Psalmists making a similar appeal for Yahweh to arise and take action, including judgment (Psalm 9:20; 10:12; Psalm 44:5)). Therefore, nothing in Psalm 82:8 requires the interpretation that the “elohim” (human “rulers”) at issue in Psalm 82:1 judge the nations. Instead, God judges the earth and possesses all the nations. The verse itself presents an appeal for God to take such action, and follows the form and substance of other such appeals in the Old Testament. In 2 Samuel 22, David praised God for delivering him from his enemies. From his distress, David called upon “my God” (“אֱלֹהַ֖י”) for deliverance. The earth shook and quaked, and the foundations of heaven were trembling and were shaken, because God was angry (2 Samuel 22:8; Psalm 18:7–earth and mountains shake; Isaiah 24:18; Ezekiel 26:15; 27:28; 38:20). God shakes the heavens and earth in anger (Haggai 2:21; Hebrews 12:26). So, nothing in Psalm 82 requires that the judges ruled the nations. In this context, supported by many other references in the Old Testament, God shakes the foundations of the world in anger. God’s righteous indignation burns through Psalm 82 against the unjust judges. The predominant theme of Old Testament eschatology displays the wrath of God against human unrighteousness, including the evil judges of His congregation. When Jesus comes, Jesus will rule the nations with a rod of iron (Psalm 2) and impose perfect judgment upon the nations of the earth. The eschatological theme of Messianic deliverance booms through Psalm 82. Nothing in Psalm 82 would require human judges to judge the nations; in fact, the plain words of the Psalm present Asaph’s appeal for God to judge the nations. Straw men never make good fuel for a lasting fire.
4.9.2 Eschatology and Sin. In Psalm 82, the sin of the judges controls the passage. Asaph called upon God to intervene and judge the nations, because the “elohim,” the very “sons of the Most High,” with their exalted position, have sinned like Adam, and so God will judge them as He judged Adam. Nothing in Psalm 82 indicates the “elohim” ruled the nations, but rather Asaph followed the eschatological theme that God will return, judge the entire world (not just Israel) and establish His rule over all the earth. Hosea used the same phrase “like Adam” in the context of judgment by God to show how Adam died because Adam violated the covenant with God. One could argue that Adam was immortal and then died because of sin and, they claim, Paul made just that argument in Romans 5. Psalm 82 involves the contrast between “God” and the “elohim,” righteous activity and sinful activity, and exalted judges dying like Adam because of their sin. The heights from which the sinners fell provides a stunning contrast to their final demise.
4.10 God and Man. The judges in Psalm 82 did not pass from immortality to mortality, as claimed by the divine council view, but the “elohim” certainly received a death sentence. The greater contrast involves the revelation that God called some humans “elohim.” Because they were representatives of God, doing the will of God and applying the law of God, they were exalted members of the congregation of El. Yet, they sinned like Adam and their exalted position did nothing to stop God from imposing the death penalty upon them for their sin, just like Adam. Because of their sin, they suffered the same judgment God imposed upon Adam, death, as Hosea 6 makes plain. Hosea 6 and the Old Testament provide a far more reliable guide to understanding Psalm 82 than the ancient pagans’ views of their demons. Therefore, the translation of Psalm 82:6 offered above (“die like Adam”) solves any issue related to the adversative qualities of Psalm 82:6 and Psalm 82:7. Furthermore, the reference back to Adam fits well with the death of the first man because Adam disobeyed the commands of God and died, just as the human judges of Psalm 82 disobeyed the commands of God regarding judging His congregation and so the human judges died.
5. The Call for God To Judge the Earth
Psalm 82 ends with a call for God to judge the earth! God possesses all the nations, and so He must act as Judge. In 2 Chronicles 19:6, God commanded the judges to consider that they do not judge for men, but for the LORD Who is with them when they render judgment.
Therefore, we know that God appointed human judges, but they must always be aware that they render their judgment for God, and that He must be with them when they judge. In Psalm 82, the judges have departed from justice, embraced wickedness, and left the weak and needy lacking the full protection of law the judges must provide to them. Yet, Asaph prayed that God Himself would arise and take all judicial matters into His own hands, because the Most High possesses all the nations. We can rejoice in knowing that God cares about justice for the weakest and most oppressed.
Psalm 82 │ Divine Council? │ Who Are the Elohim?
Click Here: John 10:22-39
Psalm 82 │ Divine Council? │ Who Are the Elohim?
Chart of the Usage of בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל
in the Old Testament
I have provided a chart of the usage of בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל in the Old Testament, including terms related to the basic terms for congregation. I did not attempt an exhaustive study, and I did not include the study of many similar words. Because God inspired the words in the original autographs of the Bible, we must be very careful to understand God’s choice of very particular words. The evidence for the word study of בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל flatly contradicts any claim that the term “congregation” was ever applied to anyone except humans, or in one case, bees. Absent compelling proof from the Bible that בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל refers to a non-human congregation, we must stand with the uniform use of the term “congregation” (more than 140 times in the Old Testament) to refer to the congregation of the humans of Israel alive one earth at the time referenced, with a few exceptions described above, where they still are humans, but not necessarily all from Israel. Appealing to external sources other than the Bible cannot provide a reliable guide to the Bible in light of the first-hand use of the term “congregation” in the Bible. God chose the words the Bible and provided compelling lexical proof the phrase בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל must refer to the human congregation of Israel alive at the time referenced in Psalm 82.
|Exodus 12:3||דַּבְּר֗וּ אֶֽל־כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙||Speak to all the congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 12:6||וְשָׁחֲט֣וּ אֹתֹ֗ו כֹּ֛ל קְהַ֥ל עֲדַֽת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֵּ֥ין הָעַרְבָּֽיִם||Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel is to kill it at twilight||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 12:19||הַנֶּ֤פֶשׁ הַהִוא֙ מֵעֲדַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל||that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 12:47||כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יַעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹתֹֽו||All the congregation of Israel are to do this||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 16:1||וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִ֔ין||and all the congregation of the sons of Israel came to the wilderness of sin||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 16:2||וַיִּלִּינוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עַל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה||The whole congregation of the sons of Israel grumbled against Moses||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 16:9||וַיֹּ֤אמֶר מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֔ן אֱמֹ֗ר אֶֽל־כָּל־עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל||hen Moses said to Aaron, “Say to all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 16:10||וַיְהִ֗י כְּדַבֵּ֤ר אַהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל||It came about as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 16:22||וַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵ֣י הָֽעֵדָ֔ה||And all the leaders of the congregation came||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 17:1||וַ֠יִּסְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל||Then all the congregation of the sons of Israel journeyed||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 34:31||וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִ֖ים בָּעֵדָ֑ה||and all the rulers in the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 35:1||וַיַּקְהֵ֣ל מֹשֶׁ֗ה אֶֽת־כָּל־עֲדַ֛ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל||Then Moses assembled all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 35:4||וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖||And Moses spoke to all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 35:20||וַיֵּ֥צְא֛וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל||Then all the congregation of the sons of Israel departed||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Exodus 38:25||וְכֶ֛סֶף פְּקוּדֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה||The silver of those of the congregation who were numbered||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 4:13||וְאִ֨ם כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִשְׁגּ֔וּ||Now if the whole congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 4:15||זִקְנֵ֨י הָעֵדָ֧ה||elders of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 8:4||וַתִּקָּהֵל֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה אֶל־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מֹועֵֽד||When the congregation was assembled at the doorway of the tent of meeting||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 8:3||וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־הָעֵדָ֖ה הַקְהֵ֑ל אֶל־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מֹועֵֽד||and assemble all the congregation at the doorway of the tent of meeting||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 8:5||וַיֹּ֥אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶל־הָעֵדָ֑ה||Moses said to the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 9:5||וַֽיִּקְרְבוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||and the whole congregation came near||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 10:6||וְעַ֥ל כָּל־הָעֵדָ֖ה יִקְצֹ֑ף||that He will not become wrathful against all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 10:17||אֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן הָעֵדָ֔ה||the guilt of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 16:5||וּמֵאֵ֗ת עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִקַּ֛ח||He shall take from the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 19:2||דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל||Speak to all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 24:14||כָּל־הָעֵדָֽה||all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Leviticus 24:16||כָּל־הָעֵדָ֑ה||all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 1:2||שְׂא֗וּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֙ כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֖ם||Take a census of all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 1:16||הָעֵדָ֔ה||the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 1:18||כָּל־הָעֵדָ֜ה||all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 1:53||וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֣ה קֶ֔צֶף עַל־עֲדַ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל||so that there will be no wrath on the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 3:7||כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||the whole congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 4:34||וּנְשִׂיאֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה||and the leaders of the congregation|
|Numbers 8:9||וְהִ֨קְהַלְתָּ֔ אֶֽת־כָּל־עֲדַ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל||You shall also assemble the whole congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 8:20||וְכָל־עֲדַ֥ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לַלְוִיִּ֑ם||and all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 10:2||הָֽעֵדָ֔ה||הָֽעֵדָ֔ה||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 10:3||כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Judges 21:13||וַֽיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||Then the whole congregation sent||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 13:26||וְאֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל||and to all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:1||כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||Then all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:2||כָּל־הָעֵדָ֗ה||and the whole congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:5||כָּל־קְהַ֥ל עֲדַ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל||all the assembly of the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:7||וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל||and they spoke to all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:10||וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||But all the congregation said||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:27||לָעֵדָ֤ה הָֽרָעָה֙ הַזֹּ֔את||with this evil congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:35||לְכָל־הָעֵדָ֤ה הָֽרָעָה֙ הַזֹּ֔את||all this evil congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 14:36||אֶת־כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 15:24||וְהָיָ֗ה אִ֣ם מֵעֵינֵ֣י הָעֵדָה֮ נֶעֶשְׂתָ֣ה לִשְׁגָגָה֒ וְעָשׂ֣וּ כָל־הָעֵדָ֡ה פַּ֣ר בֶּן־בָּקָר֩ אֶחָ֨ד לְעֹלָ֜ה לְרֵ֤יחַ נִיחֹ֨חַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וּמִנְחָתֹ֥ו וְנִסְכֹּ֖ו כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד לְחַטָּֽת||then it shall be, if it is done unintentionally, without the knowledge of the congregation, that all the congregation shall offer one bull for a burnt offering, as a soothing aroma to the LORD, with its grain offering and its drink offering, according to the ordinance, and one male goat for a sin offering.||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 15:25||וְכִפֶּ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֗ן עַֽל־כָּל־עֲדַ֛ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל||Then the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 15:26||וְנִסְלַ֗ח לְכָל־עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל||So all the congregation of the sons of Israel will be forgiven||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 15:33||וְאֶ֖ל כָּל־הָעֵדָֽה||and to all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 15:35||רָגֹ֨ום אֹתֹ֤ו בָֽאֲבָנִים֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||all the congregation shall stone him with stones||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 15:36||וַיֹּצִ֨יאוּ אֹתֹ֜ו כָּל־הָעֵדָ֗ה||So all the congregation brought him||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:2||נְשִׂיאֵ֥י עֵדָ֛ה||leaders of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:3||כִּ֤י כָל־הָֽעֵדָה֙||for all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:9||מֵעֲדַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל||from the congregation of Israel,||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:19||אֶת־כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:21||הִבָּ֣דְל֔וּ מִתֹּ֖וךְ הָעֵדָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את||Separate yourselves from among this congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:22||וְעַ֥ל כָּל־הָעֵדָ֖ה תִּקְצֹֽף||will You be angry with the entire congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:24||דַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־הָעֵדָ֖ה||Speak to the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:26||וַיְדַבֵּ֨ר אֶל־הָעֵדָ֜ה||and he spoke to the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 16:26||וַיְדַבֵּ֨ר אֶל־הָעֵדָ֜ה||and he spoke to the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Numbers 16:41||וַיִּלֹּ֜נוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙||But on the next day all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Numbers 16:42||וַיְהִ֗י בְּהִקָּהֵ֤ל הָֽעֵדָה֙||It came about, however, when the congregation had assembled||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Numbers 16:45||הֵרֹ֗מּוּ מִתּוֹךְ֙ הָעֵדָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את||Get away from among this congregation||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Numbers 16:46||וְהוֹלֵ֧ךְ מְהֵרָ֛ה אֶל־הָעֵדָ֖ה||then bring it quickly to the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Numbers 17:11||וְהֹולֵ֧ךְ מְהֵרָ֛ה אֶל־הָעֵדָ֖ה||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:1||וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ בְנֵֽי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵל כָּל־הָ֨עֵדָ֤ה||Then the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:2||וְלֹא־הָ֥יָה מַ֖יִם לָעֵדָ֑ה||There was no water for the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:8||וְהַקְהֵ֤ל אֶת־הָעֵדָה֙ אַתָּה֙||assemble the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:11||וַתֵּ֥שְׁתְּ הָעֵדָ֖ה וּבְעִירָֽם||and the congregation and their beasts drank||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:22||כָּל־הָעֵדָ֖ה||the whole congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:27||לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־הָעֵדָֽה||in the sight of all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 20:29||וַיִּרְאוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||When all the congregation saw||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 25:6||וּלְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל||and in the sight of all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 25:7||וַיָּ֨קָם֙ מִתֹּ֣וךְ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה||he arose from the midst of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 26:2||שְׂא֞וּ אֶת־רֹ֣אשׁ׀ כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל||count the head of all the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 26:9||בַּעֲדַת־קֹ֔רַח||who were called by the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 26:10||בְּמֹ֣ות הָעֵדָ֑ה||when that company died||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:2||כָל־הָעֵדָ֑ה||and all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:3||אָבִינוּ֮ מֵ֣ת בַּמִּדְבָּר֒ וְה֨וּא לֹא־הָיָ֜ה בְּתֹ֣וךְ הָעֵדָ֗ה הַנֹּועָדִ֛ים עַל־יְהוָ֖ה בַּעֲדַת־קֹ֑רַח כִּֽי־בְחֶטְאֹ֣ו מֵ֔ת וּבָנִ֖ים לֹא־הָ֥יוּ לֹֽו׃||Our father died in the wilderness, yet he was not among the company of those who gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah; but he died in his own sin, and he had no sons.||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:14||בִּמְרִיבַת֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה||during the strife of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:16||אִ֖ישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָֽה||a man over the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:17||וְלֹ֤א תִהְיֶה֙ עֲדַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה כַּצֹּ֕אן||so that the congregation of the LORD will not be like sheep||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:19||וְלִפְנֵ֖י כָּל־הָעֵדָ֑ה||and before all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:20||לְמַ֣עַן יִשְׁמְע֔וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל||in order that all the congregation of the sons of Israel may obey him.||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:21||וְכָל־הָעֵדָֽה||even all the congregation.||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 27:22||וְלִפְנֵ֖י כָּל־הָעֵדָֽה||and before all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 31:12||וְאֶל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל||to the congregation of the sons of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 31:13||וְכָל־נְשִׂיאֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה||and all the leaders of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 31:16||וַתְּהִ֥י הַמַּגֵּפָ֖ה בַּעֲדַ֥ת יְהוָֽה||so the plague was among the congregation of the LORD||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 31:26||וְרָאשֵׁ֖י אֲבֹ֥ות הָעֵדָֽה||the heads of the fathers’ households of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 31:27||כָּל־הָעֵדָֽה||and all the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 31:43||וַתְּהִ֛י מֶחֱצַ֥ת הָעֵדָ֖ה||now the congregation’s half||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 32:2||וְאֶל־נְשִׂיאֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר||and to the leaders of the congregation, saying||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 32:4||הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לִפְנֵי֙ עֲדַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל||the LORD conquered before the congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 35:12||עַד־עָמְדֹ֛ו לִפְנֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה לַמִּשְׁפָּֽט||until he stands before the congregation for trial||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 35:24||וְשָֽׁפְטוּ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה||then the congregation shall judge||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Numbers 35:25||וְהִצִּ֨ילוּ הָעֵדָ֜ה||The congregation shall deliver||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 9:15||הָעֵדָֽה||the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 9:18||וְלֹ֤א הִכּוּם֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּֽי־נִשְׁבְּע֤וּ לָהֶם֙ נְשִׂיאֵ֣י הָֽעֵדָ֔ה בַּֽיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּלֹּ֥נוּ כָל־הָעֵדָ֖ה עַל־הַנְּשִׂיאִֽים||The sons of Israel did not strike them because the leaders of the congregation had sworn to them by the LORD the God of Israel. And the whole congregation grumbled against the leaders.||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 9:19||וְעַתָּ֕ה||to the whole congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 9:21||לְכָל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||for the whole congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 9:27||לָֽעֵדָ֑ה||for the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 18:1||וַיִּקָּ֨הֲל֜וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙||Then the whole congregation of the sons of Israel assembled themselves||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 20:6||לִפְנֵ֤י הָֽעֵדָה֙||before the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 20:9||לִפְנֵ֥י הָעֵדָֽה||before the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 22:12||וַיִּקָּ֨הֲל֜וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ שִׁלֹ֔ה||the whole congregation of the sons of Israel gathered themselves at Shiloh||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 22:16||כֹּ֣ה אָמְר֞וּ כֹּ֣ל׀ עֲדַ֣ת יְהוָ֗ה||Thus says the whole congregation of the LORD||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 22:17||בַּעֲדַ֥ת יְהוָֽה||on the congregation of the LORD||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 22:18||וּמָחָ֕ר אֶֽל־כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יִקְצֹֽף||He will be angry with the whole congregation of Israel tomorrow||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 22:20||וְעַֽל־כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל||on all the congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Joshua 22:30||וּנְשִׂיאֵ֨י הָעֵדָ֜ה||and the leaders of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Judge 14:8||עֲדַ֧ת דְּבֹורִ֛ים||Congregation of bees||Swarm of Bees||Bees in carcass|
|Judges 20:1||וַתִּקָּהֵ֨ל הָעֵדָ֜ה||and the congregation assembled||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Judges 21:10||וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ־שָׁ֣ם הָעֵדָ֗ה||And the congregation sent||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Judges 21:13||וַֽיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||Then the whole congregation sent||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Judges 21:16||זִקְנֵ֣י הָעֵדָ֔ה||elders of the congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|1 Kings 8:5||וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה וְכָל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙||And King Solomon and all the congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|1 Kings 12:20||וַיִּקְרְא֤וּ אֹתֹו֙ אֶל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה||called him to the assembly||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|2 Chronicles 5:6||וְכָל־עֲדַ֧ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל||and all the congregation of Israel||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Job 15:34||כִּֽי־עֲדַ֣ת חָנֵ֣ף||For the company of the godless||Humans||Humans|
|Psalm 1:5||וְ֝חַטָּאִ֗ים בַּעֲדַ֥ת צַדִּיקִֽים||nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Psalm 22:17||עֲדַ֣ת מְ֭רֵעִים הִקִּיפ֑וּנִי||A band of evildoers has encompassed me||Evil Humans||Humans|
|Psalm 68:31||גְּעַ֨ר חַיַּ֪ת קָנֶ֡ה עֲדַ֤ת אַבִּירִ֨ים||Rebuke the beasts in the reeds||Animals |
|Psalm 74:2||זְכֹ֤ר עֲדָתְךָ֨׀||Remember Your congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Psalm 82:1||אֱֽלֹהִ֗ים נִצָּ֥ב בַּעֲדַת־אֵ֑ל||And Elohim took His stand in the midst of the congregation of El||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Psalm 106:17||וַ֝תְּכַ֗ס עַל־עֲדַ֥ת אֲבִירָֽם||And engulfed the company of Abiram||Human Congregation of Abiram Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Psalm 106:18||וַתִּבְעַר־אֵ֥שׁ בַּעֲדָתָ֑ם||And a fire blazed up in their company||Human Congregation of Abiram Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Psalm 111:1||וְעֵדָֽה||Congregation||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Proverbs 5:14||כִּ֭מְעַט הָיִ֣יתִי בְכָל־רָ֑ע בְּתֹ֖וךְ קָהָ֣ל וְעֵדָֽה||“I was almost in utter ruin|
In the midst of the assembly and congregation
|Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Jeremiah 6:18||וּדְעִ֥י עֵדָ֖ה אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־בָּֽם||And know, O congregation, what is among them||Human Congregation of Israel Alive on Earth||Humans|
|Jeremiah 30:20||וַעֲדָתֹ֖ו לְפָנַ֣י תִּכֹּ֑ון||And their congregation shall be established before Me||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|
|Hosea 7:12||אַיְסִרֵ֕ם כְּשֵׁ֖מַע לַעֲדָתָֽם||I will chastise them in accordance with the proclamation to their assembly||Human Congregation of Israel||Humans|